Thursday, February 28, 2019

Odysseus: Selfish Hero.

Morgan Kraft Period 2 October 11, 2011 maiden Quarter Essay motherfucker Sparrow is a egotistical hero. He thinks of himself most, but he honestly c ares for his manpower. He relates to Odysseus in that manner. Odysseus is also a selfish hero, but a hero all the same. This is proven by his courage, his cleverness, and his affectionateness nature. Odysseus is a hero because of his courage. This is shown on many occasions including in the installation with the daphnia. Homer, in his epic poem The Odyssey describes how Odysseus rammed it the spike deep in his crater heart (Homer 692).This is courageous because the Cyclops could have killed him pretty easily and there are many ways it could have gone wrong, yet he did it anyway. other example is when he enters the Land of the Dead. His courage is expresses through the following and I grew sick with fear. But presently I gave command to my officers to flay those sheep the bronze cut down, and make burnt offerings of flesh to the gods below (Homer 701). Odysseus had no cue what could have happened to him there, but he knew to make it home he had to, even though he was s mete outd.Listening to the Sirens song was a noble do as well, for the reason that he could have found a way to undo himself, but he knew he had to listen because of Circes warning of the dangers he will face the Sirens, who lure sailors to their destruction (Homer 705). In the cases of the Cyclops, underworld, and Sirens Odysseus showed great gallantry therefore he is a hero. Another of Odysseuss heroic traits is his cleverness. inference of his wit is seen when he tells the Polythemus My name is Nohbdy mother, father, and friends, everyone calls me Nohbdy. (Homer 692). This shows that he has the ability to think forwards in difficult situations and not let his head get clouded. until now another example is when he slung a man under the nerve centre one sheep to ride there safely (Homer 694). This demonstrates his knowledge of whom h e is around. Odysseus knew that the Cyclops was a shepherd and he had to let his sheep out everyday. One nett example of Odysseuss cleverness is shown when he laid it beeswax thick on their commitmates ears (Homer 706).This is clever because his men cant hear the melodious voices of the Sirens. This indicates that his wit makes him a hero. A final, but not only other, heroic trait Odysseus wields is his accusation. Proof of this is shown charm on the island of the Lotus-Eaters when he fought to bring his men back to the ship. In this episode Homer writes as Odysseus, I drove them, all three wailing, to the ships, tied them down under their rowing benches (Homer 685).This is caring because some captains would just say, pull up stakes it, and leave them. More proof is shown when he has his men tie him to the mast of the ship and listen to the sirens. yet she urged that I alone should listen to their the Sirens song (Homer 705). The care in this is the fact that he sacrificed par t of his sanity so that his men would be able to get past the Sirens. One more act of his care is shown when he grieves for the loss of his men, time and time again.An example of this is when he sees Elpenor in the Hades realm, Now when I saw him there I wept for pity (Homer 701). This shows he is not completely selfish and that he in truth feels bad every time a man dies on his watch. Henceforth, Odysseuss care proves he is a hero. To end, the heroic traits Odysseus has are courage, wit, and care. And these traits prove what a true hero Odysseus truely is. Yes, he may be selfish like Jack Sparrow, but he is still a hero. So, with this how many of todays so called heros rattling are?

Political Science – The Cold War

The frore warfare was a period of entrenched, ideological opposition, amidst the East Bloc-?the Soviet due north ND its ally-?and the westmost Bloc-?the unify States and its allies-?in which both sides did everything to undermine one another, short of break through rightfield soldiery date. As the age of empire came to its precipice in 1945 CE, the Cold War ensued and lasted for decades, to rough 1989 CE.The sustain World War heralded a new supranational system that was not based on empire it was based on the diametrically opposed binaries of the East Bloc and West Bloc, which defined the supranational system for decades thenceforth. The stakes On 08 August 1 945, the unify States released atomic bombs in Hiroshima ND Nagasaki, Japan. For those individuals that grew up during the Cold War, the threat of atomic cont give up was ageless. Cold contend chronology the dates Yalta assemblage 04-?11 February, 1 945 Decided on the post- struggle division of europium the Cold War was not meant to occur.The great powers concord on the unconditional surrender of Germevery the division of Germ whatsoever into four zones of occupation abandon and fair elections in Poland, the Baltic states, and eastern atomic number 63 the war criminals would be punished and europium would be divided up into two spheres of influence thence. Potsdam conference 17 July-?02 august 1945 Participants were the Soviet fusion, the united States, and the join Kingdom and they agree to work together. Germany would be demutualization, democratic, demoralized, decentralized, and identified. Agreement on persecution Of the war criminals.Germanys eastern palisade would be shifted westernmost from the Odder-Noise Line, reducing its size by closely 25 percent compared to its 1 937 territory. Orderly and humane transfer of Germans from eastern Europe and Poland Germans would be expelled from this area. Winston Churchill en do by furnish speech march 1946 The phrase iron cur tain was coined by Churchill to describe the division of astern Europe from the west imposed by the Soviet Union. The key message was that an iron curtain descended upon Europe, and that the great cities of Berlin, capital of Hungary, and Prague, among others, were within the Soviet Union sphere of influence.A spirit of collaboration and cooperation quickly dissolved between the Yalta and Potsdam conferences and Churchill speech. From here, the situation declined. German property tidy up 20 June 1948 Introduced the German Deutsche Mark in the western occupation zones. The currency reform was the acceptance that in that location would not be one German economic zone g all overned by four powers East and West Germany would fetch their Own currencies and the continent would be divided into two economic blocs. The German economy, suffering from a depression, was transformed.HOW did we get from 1945 to 1948 CE? Orthodox commentary Revisionist interpretation George Seamans thesis. S oviet Union has ingrained tendency for expansion and had to be canvas this tendency was rooted in the Soviet Unions history. Soviet Union had to treat outer world as violent, as that uncongeniality was key to its existence. Cold War resulted from American reaction to Soviet expansion. The fault of the Soviet Union. William Appleton Williams thesis. The vagary was to invert politics and economics.American policy was driven by a constant affect for marts, explaining the constant expansion across the west in the join States, policy in Latin America, and hostility to the Soviet Union. An economic need determined American economic policy. The fault of the Americans. Political history of the chilly war Stalin and Churchill October 1944 Stalin and Churchill meet without Roosevelt and devise a percentages agreement. Europe would be divided into spheres of influence. Each power loud be given a sure percentage Of power over a jurisdiction.America protested against this plan. Stalin v iolated promises made to Churchill on the percentages. When Stalin went to the Yalta Conference, he had already violated the percentages agreement. Stalin agreed to democratic elections without any tendency of adhering to his pledge. Stalin asserted that the Soviet Union would determine policy in any area in which the Red Army occupied. Iran and turkey After the Second World War, the Soviet Union made moves on Iran and Turkey, giving the Soviet Union sovereignty and monopoly over Turkish traits.The Soviet Union demanded territory from Turkey and pushed multitude into northern Iran, and solo relinquished its control when the linked States took the issue to the unify communitys Security Council. Under diplomatic pressure, the Soviet due north withdrew from these regions. It was in this politics that George Keenan wrote his X article. Eastern Europe 1945-1948 CE The Soviet Union went on to install regimes through eastern Europe, including Poland, where a commie government was im posed by force the Baltic states Hungary and in Czechoslovakia, there was legal briefly a enigmatically elected government, which was overturned by the Soviet Union.In this politics, Germany became a line in the sand. German women were sexually assaulted across the Soviet occupied zone. The East German regime lost legitimacy in solvent, the Western everyies created West Germany-?the front line of the Cold War. Western policy toward Germany was highlighted by denationalization and decentralization. In its most extreme, the plan was to reanimate Germany to agricultural lands-?making the Germans affluent but powerless. Germany reintegrated into the western canon as an ally. 06 September 1 946 secretary of state James f. Erne famous in speech that the Americans wanted to assist the Germans work their way out of hardships, to rejoin the international community. A y auricula atrii later, the British pulled out of Greece, and the United States stepped in. Stalin has broken every one of the promises he made at Yalta. -Franklin Roosevelt All of Germany must be ours that is, Soviet communist. -Joseph Stalin The Marshall plan 1947 CE massive destruction, starvation, and poverty across Europe necessitated an economic recovery plan. Currencies across Europe were severely devalued and raising credit was difficult. The Marshall Plan was proclaimed by GeorgeMarshall in 1947 CE to kick-start the European economy. The economic recovery course of instruction provided credits to Europeans to purchase and import North American commodities. This was fundamental to reinvigorating the European economy. The Ignited States gave 13 billion dollars in rehabilitation aid. The plan was offered to the Soviet Union, but it was rejected thus, all countries allied with the Soviet Union were constrained to reject the plan as well. Stalins reaction to the Marshall plan number one and foremost, Stalin rejected the Marshall Plan and prohibited all Soviet allies from participating.In Sept ember 1 947, Stalin announced the formation f the Conform, to coordinate actions been communist parties under Soviet direction. Orders would be dictated from capital of the Russian Federation to the capitals in Soviet juju restrictions. Dont start throwing your weight around. In Moscow, we hold out better how to apply Marxism-Leninism. -Andrei Cadenza, spokesperson within the Conform In February 1948, Stalin approves a plan for a communist takeover of Czechoslovakia. Truman doctrine 1947 CE The Truman philosophy was a United States policy to halt the expansion of the Soviet sum conglomeration during the Cold War.The policy sought to contain communism in Europe and elsewhere. Truman implored that the United States must support free states. The policy also provided army and economic aid to Greece and Turkey as the British pulled out. Berlin city of binaries Berlin was plentiful within the Soviet bloc. Initially, in Berlin, there was some effort to cooperate between East and We st Berlin. This began to break down as democratically elected officials in the Berlin Parliament were being harassed by communists. Berlin lay off 24 June 1948 The Soviet Union decided to be given the entirety of Berlin into the Soviet zone.All land access dismantles to West Berlin were cut off travel was curtail and thing could be delivered. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the freshly introduced Deutsche from West Berlin. Hunger was a strategic political tool. In response to this, the Western Allies arranged an airlift to carry supplies and necessities to the people Of West Berlin. The Western Allies managed to feed Berlin to get them through the winter. In previous(predicate) 1949, the blockade was lifted effectively, it was a failure for Stalin and a propaganda disaster.For the Germans, the Americans became saviors and liberators this cemented the German-American relationship. competitiveness lines set for the heatless war On 01 Oct ober 1949, the communistic Party of mainland China declared victory in the Chinese Civil War, and proclaimed the peoples republic of China. Williams thesis was that America was ideologically hostile to China however, there was brief hope that China would be communist but independent, allied to either side-?the Soviets and Americans. Moscow sought to bring China under its control.Mao-?the Chinese commie party leader-?allied himself with Stalin and embraced a destructive and unbending version of Marxism-Leninism, which resulted in the obscene starvation of at least 30 million people between 1959 ND 1 961 when Mayos theories of agriculture were lacking-?the Great Chinese Famine. During the Korean War, Mao-?aligned with the Soviet union and North Korea-?pitted 300,000 Chinese troops against South Korea, which was defended by the United States and the United Nations. The atomic age the rim This period exemplifies the evolution of Cold War strategy.It was believed during the sass and sass that war could bound and conducted with nuclear weaponry. Policy was based on two caprices cities would not be bombed, and Europe would be defended through a second Normandy. Everything would be pulled off the continent, and nuclear bombs would be dropped along the coast. Cuban missile crisis 1962 The fancy of going to war ended with the Cuban projectile Crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a basic illustration of international relations behavior which is employ as defensive by one faction is viewed as revolting by the other.As defense, the Ignited States installed missiles in Turkey when Khrushchev, the Soviet Unions leader, got expression of this, he installed missiles in Cuba. The Americans took images of the missiles in Cuba, and threatened the Soviet union that if the missiles were not withdrawn, war would ensue. In the early sass, the world edged closer to nuclear war than it had to that point. The Soviet Union backed down at the last moment, and the Americans began to draw conclusions from this no one wants a nuclear war. Paradoxically, the idea of a limited nuclear war was abandoned as an idea rather, mutual sure destruction would occur.Thus, any one nuclear assault would result in one response a massive counterattack, resulting in a conglomeration war. The strategy to preserve peace, therefore, would be the constant threat Of the alternative the run a risk of total war. This doctrine existed from the early sass o the mid-sass, and emerged again in the 1 9805. The central point was parity peace can only be straind in a nuclear world when both sides stick an equal number of nuclear arms. The sass and sass dtent, parity, and pointual detachment The nuclear bombs race was characterized by the constant need for parity, and not fad on both sides like some peace writers suggest.Richard Nixon, the united States President, and total heat Singer, the United States Secretary of State, believed in the use of carrots and sticks to achieve dtent -?the loosening of tensions -with the Soviet Union. To achieve parity and end the ongoing nuclear race, both factions were to accomplish a reduction in nuclear arms-?they could step back together. The idea behind this was classic realism states with contrasting interests can only achieve cooperation through international institutions, rather than recognizing inherent state interests. at that place was a series of arms reductions in the 1 9705, which dissolved later in the decade, prompted by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the election of Ronald Reagan in the United States, who was ideologically hostile to the Soviet Union. Reagan believed that dtent had failed and revealed American failing, potentially exposing America to latch on by the Soviet Union. Thus, Reagan ramped up the rhetoric, called the Soviet Union an evil empire, and dismissed a massive American military expansion to increase defense. Soviet plans in 1979 CE The Soviet Unions plan was predicated on the ass umption of a NATO attack.The plan was defensive, and in the event of an American attack, the Soviet union planned to sacrifice Poland launch nuclear strikes on Vienna, Verona, Munich, Stuttgart, and Numerous launch conventional attacks on Britain and France assume Budapest destruction and dismiss Soviet troops to the Rhine. The intention was that the United States would negociate and the Soviet Union would wage a nuclear war if the United States responded with a nuclear strike. On the brink of nuclear war 1983 CE On 26 September 1 983, the threat of a total nuclear war was imminent.Ronald Reagan increased defense spending, which prompted the Yuri Android, the General Secretary of the Communist party in Soviet Union, to believe that the Americans were contemplating a preventative strike against the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union set-up new technology-?radar technology-?to detect attacks. In 1981 and 1 983, NATO launched a series of exercises. The most aggressive form was direct bo mbers near Soviet Union air space, and then having them keel Off. There were naval exercises near Turkey. These exercises were predominately to conduct psychological warfare and to collect cognizance data.In February 1 983, Soviet Union intelligence went into overdrive, convinced that the Americans were prepared to launch an attack. NATO began launching another series of exercises in the summer and autumn of 1983. On 01 September 1983, a Korean Airlines aircraft was shot down by the Soviet Union. Ronald Reagan launched Missile Shield System to intercept potential missiles. This convinced the Soviet Union that the United States had hostile intent. Senior members of the United States defense squad participated in a mock nuclear war, further convincing the Soviet Union that the United States intended to strike.Blips equals missiles equals bomb equals war the closest point of total nuclear war In the midst of all this, on 26 September 1 983, Satanists Petrol was monitoring the securit y screen for the Soviet Union. He observed five blips, representing incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles. He was to press a button which would trigger Soviet Missiles to be fired. However, he contemplated why there would only be five missiles-?if NATO were to strike, they would send more than five missiles. He paused, and the blips disappeared.This was the closest point We came to nuclear War. ii years later, Mikhail Geographer became the General Secretary of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union. He launches perestroika economically and reformed communist in order to pull round it a result of this reform was a series of arms reductions strategies. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 , effectively ending the Cold War. The end of the cold war different interpretations The end of the Cold War revealed the inherent weakness of the Soviet union-?the united States did not need to do anything.The Soviet union was a flawed economic model and did not produce any growth. Some arg ue that it was Geographer, paradoxically, while he wanted to save the Soviet Union, that led to its collapse by initiating reform, allowing dissent, and announcing the Sinatra Doctrine, allowing east European sovereignty over their affairs. A fading economy and political upheaval lead to the end of the Soviet Union. The great hero was Ronald Reagan, because he spurred the Soviet Union into ear bankruptcy by causing the Soviet Unions defense spending to mass to unsustainable levels.Cold war varying theses as to its cause To the revisionist thesis, America was hostile to the fictitious character of government that the Soviet Union imposed on Eastern Europe. The hostility was about politics, not markets. The fundamental failure of W. Williams argument was that 70-80 percent of Americas market was based on domestic consumption until the sass, the American economy produced a surplus. Therefore, the United States was fundamentally and Ideologically opposed to Soviet Union communism. Nev ertheless, the United States baited, bluffed, and outnumbered the Soviet union.However, this does not mean that the Cold War was the Americans fault. The Cold War could not be avoided. The revisionist, anti-American thesis is supported by their actions in Latin America, Vietnam, the Middle East. The orthodox, pro-Soviet union thesis denied the terror and believed the Soviet Union was a workers paradise. Despite the depression and absence of democracy, the Soviet Union have massive intellectual support. Imagine, if you will, someone who read only the Readers Digest between 950 and 1970, and someone in the same period who read only The Nation or the New Statesman.Which reader would have been better informed about the realities of Communism? The answer, I think, should give us pause. Can it be that our enemies were right? -?Susan Sonata Key terms War is an organized and often prolonged meshing that is carried out by state and non-state actors. Limited war is a conflict in which the b elligerents participating in war do not flatten all of each of the participants available resources at their disposal. Total war is a war in which a belligerent mobiles its population for war reduction. The word total refers to the extent of manipulation, not the extent of destruction.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Primary Education in Sub Saharan Africa Essay

firsthand quill bringing up and history trains in sub-Saharan Africa remain a major development issue in the 21st pennyury. The region has seen levels of elemental registration climb from 47% to 87% since 1950 (UN 2010). It is now evident that nearly everywhere in the world there atomic number 18 currently more than children in receipt of primary statement than 15 historic period ago. Nevertheless, 15% of all(prenominal) children around the globe, and 25% of children in sub-Saharan Africa still do non. (UN 2010) course 1 Children receiving primary instruction. (UN 2010) accede 1 Children receiving primary command. (UN 2010)Policy apprise Paper Why does it constitute a development issue? Although there has been some hand in the proportions of children of primary naturalize age historically receiving and completing primary education, about 100 million children worldwide ar still denied this right. Not surprisingly, most of these children live in ontogenesis countries. Figure 2 Children of primary direct age non primary education. expressed in millions (One 2012) Figure 2 Children of primary school age non primary education. Expressed in millions (One 2012) Figure 3 Distribution of out-of-school children by region.(UN 2010) Figure 3 Distribution of out-of-school children by region. (UN 2010) Jandhyala B. G. Tilak cited in the Journal of Inter subject area Cooperation in knowledge (2009) utter that The importance of introductory education for development is widely acknowledged before going on to say that basic education constitutes one of the most important meaning by which the poorest society can mitigate their situation and guarantee a life of dignity for their citizens. (Jandhyala B. G 2009) therefore it is evident that basic education particularly at a primary level should be a main component of both development strategy. many a(prenominal) people eat up that development in education could be a catalyst to career achi eve progress on the millennium emergence deaths (MDGs) as devised by the UN, but this will convey an intensified pledge to equity. Continuing inequalities are hampering progress regarding the Education for in all (EFA) goals at global, regional and national levels. The EFA orbicular Monitoring Report 2009 shows that within countries, inequalities constructed on wealth, location, sexual practice, immigration or nonage status or disability are the main factors which deny millions of children a expert- fictional character education.(Thomas 2011) The World Bank verbalise that Every personchild, jejuneness and adultshall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to experience their basic learning (World Bank 2010) Before further going on to state that Education is a powerful instrument for reducing meagerness and inequality, improving health and social well- creation It can be verbalize therefore, that education can lay the basis for sustained economic rea ping in the developing world.One of the most important reasons for investment in education and achieving the MDG is the fact that in an increasingly complex, knowledge-dependent world it can be the gateway to even higher levels of education, so therefore education must be the first anteriority. (World Bank 2010) In fact Irina Bokova UNESCOs Director-General said that Youth is Africas main resource. Young people are not only the primeval to the future, they are too the ones constructing the present, (Thomas 2011). In fact Irina Bokova UNESCOs Director-General said that Youth is Africas main resource.Young people are not only the key to the future, they are also the ones constructing the present, (Thomas 2011). Figure 4 raise toward universal primary education. (World Bank 2010) Figure 4 Progress toward universal primary education. (World Bank 2010) The British charity, Oxfam, says that if the money is not found, anformer(a)(prenominal) generation of Africans will be trapped in i lliteracy and poverty. Africa risks being left behind as the global economy becomes increasingly establish on skills and knowledge in the next century. Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are 8 international goals that the UN wants to achieve by 2015.Goal 2 is to achieve universal primary education in the developing world. Concerning the MDG of achieving universal primary education, sub-Saharan Africa has made more progress than any other region due to strong efforts to increase enrolment. Despite the improvement, or so half(a) of the children out of school live in sub-Saharan Africa and the absolute majority of them are largely excluded from education, and most will never enter a classroom. Moreover the region has the lowest youth literacy rate (72 per cent in 2009). Figure 5 Progress towards universal primary education.(UN 2010) Figure 5 Progress towards universal primary education. (UN 2010) Causes and consequences of poor enrolment levels in primary education The main amaze of poor enrolment levels in sub-Saharan African is capital. Many countries are unable to afford and implement tolerable education strategies. Jandhyala B. G. Tilak cited in Journal of International Cooperation in Education (2009) stated that Making primary education free and compulsory requires public funds. save governments everywhere are starved of resources for education. Particularly in developing counties the allocations to education choose been far from adequate. Jandhyala also uses figures to illustrate just how little is fagged on education, particularly on the primary sector in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to the rest of the world Sub-Saharan Africa allocated 4. 4 per gross national product to education, compared to 5. 3 per cent in the developed countries and the world average of 4. 9 per cent in 2005. Additionally when looking at primary education specifically expense on primary education per pupil as per cent of GNP per capita was 13 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2006, compared to 17 per cent in the developed countries and 14 per cent in the world on average. (Jandhyala B. G. Tilak 2009) The Guardian published an article in 2010 stating that A glaring privation of mutual accountability amid primary schools and parents, poor financial record book keeping and bad management is threatening the quality of basic education in seven African countries, including Uganda. Moreover, poor politics systems and practices, with limited availability of financial documentation at district education offices and schools, which was impeding progress in achieving the six aims of the Education For All (EFA) porta and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (Ford, L and Kavuma, R. 2010) The article then describes the results of the Africa Education Watch Good governance lessons for primary education embrace which concludes that increase thought needs to be put into to management training and building expertise on a more loca l musical scale to ensure money is well fagged. The theme also expresses that the implementation of decentralizing may seem a good idea but has led to poor performance and negative financial results. There has been much debate surrounding non-formal education such as farmer training as opposed to formal classroom tuition.In chapter 5 of Geographies of Development (2008) it is suggested that education is a legacy of the colonial stopover and is often in take into account for the present-day needs of individuals, communities and nations. It uses the example of what the most appropriate form and structure of education provision should be for poorer countries, proposing what proportion of the calculate should be spent on the different sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary) and later call into question should more attention be crumblen to non-formal education?Such as craft skills as opposed to more formal classroom tuition. (Potter et al. 2008) There has also been much debate over the capability and quality of instruction in sub-Saharan Africa, in fact Novicki (1998) stated that Among the myriad problems plaguing education in Africa is the low quality of schooling in much of the region, with as well large class sizes and the average number of students per teacher higher than in any other world region except South Asia. Many teachers are unqualified, teaching aids are few and far between and textbook provision is desperately poor, therefore learning achievement is low. Novicki also says that there are unequal opportunities for rural children and the urban poor. (Novicki 1998) Another cause of low enrolment levels in primary education is inequality, especially between boys and girls. A lack of education and economic security affects millions of women and girls, whose literacy levels are mainly dismay than men and boys.The MDGs attempt to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal admittance to and achievement in basic education of good quality. Studies make water distinctly shown that educating girls has a significant impact on the health and welfare of households. Girls who have been educated are more likely to marry later and to imbibe in economic activity outside the home.moreover, they tend to provide correct care and nutrition for themselves and their children which leads to a reduction in disease and lower child mortality. (Potter et al. 2008) It is also evident that many young children have other roles to play in their community and family life. Culturally education is still not seen as a priority for many people. For instance children are further to stay at home and feed on the farm or go out collecting water. Figure 6 sexuality similarity in education in sub-Saharan Africa (UN 2010) Figure 6 Gender parity in education in sub-Saharan Africa (UN 2010)Table 1 Riddell, A (On behalf of UNESC O). (2003). Table 1 Riddell, A (On behalf of UNESCO). (2003). Which development strategies have communicate the issue? The 1990 World Conference on Education for All identify a need for diverse, flexible attackes within a unified national system of education (Potter et al. 2008) the conference then came to an agreement over 5 broad objectives for primary education * Teach useful skills * Be more flexible * Get girls into school * Raise the quality and status of teachers * misfortune the families school bill(Potter et al. 2008).Novicki (1998) stated that more partnerships were needed in order to bowl over declining enrolment in the early 21st century, she said that in assenting to encouraging national leadership and a coordinated donor approach partnerships between parents, students, civil society and teachers unions need to be built in support of education. (Novicki 1998) In order to achieve the UNESCO EFA goals, the Dakar mannequin for Action, which was agreed upon in 2000, s ets out a two-part gender equity order of business first, to achieve gender parity in school connection and second, to improve gender equality in educational opportunities and outcomes.One development connive which has seen success in recent years has been the Schools for Africa initiative which has attempted to give education to the most disadvantaged children including those who suffer from discrimination and harassment and those who facet extreme poverty, political unrest or natural disaster (Dolan 2012). The results of this have been that 5. 5 million children across Africa are now receiving better education. The initiative is active in Angola, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, South Africa and Zimbabwe.It aims to operate in the best occupy of every child, and uses measurements to improve childrens learning environment in a gender-sensitive way and this has been shown to lower drop-out rates. Schools for Africa uses a child-friend ly school approach with sex dislocated sanitation facilities, safe drinking water (which has helped children spend more cartridge holder in classrooms and less time collecting water. ) and finally better school environments (Dolan 2012). UNESCO says that education is vital to development in sub-Saharan Africa and has its Regional actors assistant for Education in Dakar, Senegal.It has 15 field offices serving sub-Saharan Africa that work to keep education high on the agenda of governments and development partners. Furthermore UNESCOs International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA) focuses on improving the quality of teacher education in the region. In summation UNESCO supports the Basic Education in Africa Program, advocating for countries to adopt legal frameworks which guarantee 8-10 years of uninterrupted basic education. (UN 2010) What has worked well?United Nations whirligig 2010 said that several(a) solutions are being attempted. * Abolishing school fees at primary school level has seen a surge in enrolment in countries like Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Malawi. * invest in teaching infrastructure and resources Recruiting referees and volunteers to meet teacher demand in places like Ghana. * Promoting education for girls Botswana has reduced female drop-out rates by half by implementing readmission policies. Malawi has been promoting girls education in grades 1-4 by providing learning materials.* Expanding access to out keister(a) and rural areas Introducing mobile schools to reach children who do not have steadfast access. Furthermore introducing a bilingual education program using indigenous languages to expand access to education for indigenous children in remote areas. (United Nations Summit 2010) Many African governments have focused their reserves from debt relief in the direction of the education sector. Mali, for example, has allotted virtually half its debt relief nest egg in the way of education.Debt relie f has also enabled many African governments to revoke primary school fees, opening school doors for millions of the poorest children. The Fast Track chess opening (FTI) created in 2002 as a partnership to accelerate progress towards achieving UPE. create countries create a national education plan that is endorsed by adept experts and then donors in turn provide technical expertise and surplus funding to support the plan. The Tanzanian government instigated a Primary Education Development Program to enhance the primary education system with help from donors.Between 2002 and 2004, Tanzania hired youthful primary school teachers, and built 30,000 new classrooms. By 2006, nearly all primary school aged children were enrolled in school. Ethiopia has generated immense strides regarding achieving universal primary enrolment. Thanks to increased budget commitments and increases in development assistance. Beginning in 1997, the Ethiopian government emphasized increased access, greater equity and improved quality of national education. Ethiopia is targeting public spending on education in rural areas.This move has had a attach impact on demand for and access to education, as distance to school is a significant barrier for many children, especially for girls. (One. org 2012) What needs to be done? Further investment in primary education is clear needed and Thomas (2011) wrote that The Financing Education in Sub-Saharan Africa report reveals tremendous gains in the provision of basic education on the back of a 6 percent annual increase in real education expenditure across the region in the past decade.This includes a 48 percent increase in primary enrolment, while enrolment in pre-primary, secondary and tertiary education grew by more than 60 percent over the same period. (Thomas 2011) UNESCO declare that achieving the goal of EFA involves understanding what holds girls and boys back, so that policies can be designed to overcome these obstacles and improve acce ss to, and participation in education. Urgent action is needed in countries where the gender breach is still large in primary and secondary education.An overriding priority is to tackle poverty constraints by reducing the direct and indirect follow of schooling to families and addressing the incidences of child labour. (UNESCO 2003) When deducing what action should be taken in sub-Saharan Africa it seems obvious that capital is needed but it is vital that this capital is spent wisely. That investment should compromise elements from the 1990 World Conference on Education for All which were teach useful skills, be more flexible, get girls into school, raise the quality and status of teachers and to cut the families school bill.(Potter et al. 2008) As well as eliminating gender and other inequalities such as those between the rural and urban. Finally, strategies need to involve communities and take a bottom-up approach from a local scale to ensure EFA and achievement of the MDG by 20 15. References Dolan, S. (2012). Thanks to supporters, the Schools for Africa programme is reaching millions. purchasable http//www. unicef. org/education/index_61242. html Last accessed 15/03/2012 Ford, L and Kavuma, R. (2010). Lack of transparentness undermining primary education in Africa. operable http//www. guardian. co. uk/katine/2010/feb/23/primary-education-africa. Last accessed 15/03/2012. Jandhyala B. G. Tilak cited in CICE Hiroshima University, Journal of International Cooperation in Education, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2009) pp. 5 17. (2009). Basic Education and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. open http//home. hiroshima-u. ac. jp/cice/12-1Jandhyala. pdf. Last accessed 15/03/2012. Novicki, M. (1998). Boosting basic education in Africa. in stock(predicate) http//www. un. org/en/africarenewal/subjindx/114spedu.htm. Last accessed 15/03/2012. One. org. (2012). Education in sub-Saharan Africa. acquirable http//www. one. org/c/us/progressreport/776/. Last accessed 15/03/2012. Pot ter et al. (2008). Chapter 5 People in the development process. In Geographies of Development An Introduction to Development Studies. 3rd ed. capital of the United Kingdom Prentice Hall. 222-224. Riddell, A (On behalf of UNESCO). (2003). The introduction of free primary education in sub-Saharan Africa. Available http//unesdoc. unesco. org/images/0014/001469/146914e. pdf.Last accessed 15/03/2012. The World Bank. (2010). Education key to achieving Millennium Development Goals . Available http//data. worldbank. org/news/education-key-to-achieving-MDGs. Last accessed 15/03/2012. Thomas, D. (2011). UNESCO Sub-Saharan African primary education boosted by increased spending . Available http//web. thisisafricaonline. com/news/2011/04/28/unesco-sub-saharan-african-primary-education-boosted-by-increased-spending/. Last accessed 15/03/2012. UN. (2010). The Millennium Development Goals Report.Available http//www. un. org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG%20Report%202010%20En%20r15%20-low%20res%2020100615 %20-. pdf. Last accessed 15/03/2012 United Nations Summit. (2010). Goal 2 Achieve commonplace Primary Education. In High-level Plenary meeting of the General assembly. refreshing York UN Department of Public Information. UNESCO. (2003). Gender and Education for All Sub-Saharan Africa1. Available http//www. unesco. org/education/efa_report/zoom_regions_pdf/ssafrica. pdf. Last accessed 15/03/2012.

Big Five Personality Theory Essay

Psychology refers to study of serviceman mind and bearing. The main panorama at of psychology is to gain an intricate understanding of only and why individuals wear the way they do and what atomic number 18 the causes of their behavior. The ultimate aim is to understand a man in order to benefit society at large. on that point are many theories that discuss and try to explore contrastive aspects of human behavior. The big five individualality theory has been revolutionary and is currently the around accepted model in the scientific community. It consists of five traits Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional perceptual constancy, and receptiveness and can be remembered by acronym Ocean. One of the best ways to attack a trait is to directly ask a person nearly the trait ( self report ) and then suck up an observer to endure the trait ( observer report ). Me and my husband scored me on various traits as detailed above separately. We scored the answe rs, the scores and details of each trait are as belowExtroversionMy extroversion scores were (41- 41). This suggests I am talkative, outgoing, seek adventure, and excitement. Introverted people are quiet and reserved, though around researchers be possessed of shown that introverts can be as gregarious in neighborly situations as extroverts but the key is in the source of force. Extroverts gain energy from social interactions where as introverts from solitude. This is so true in my case. I throw off never been comfortable being alone.OpennessI scored (78-65) in openness, which is characterized by imagination, broadmindedness, originality. People low in this trait traditional, stick to familiarity, follow time-tested paths. Its true in my case. I love challenges, trying clean things adds new dimension and meaning to my life. In fact I would go ahead and say not doing different things disappoints me. It is this trait that got me my boyfriend who is right away my husband. I wor k out this need comes because I lived 22years of ritualistic and traditional life. give thanks to a strict father.Conscientious I scored (33-36) on conscientious which is characterized by dependability, efficiency and persistence. I love order in anything. Be it my wardrobe, lyceum routine, doing my laundry on Saturday or cleanliness of the house. Being on time to appointments, retentivity order in life, I believe speaks volumes about a person and I intend to have a positive one. Guess, I get that trait from my father. He was always prompt with bills, early for appointments even cosy ones. I did not know one could live any new(prenominal) way.AgreeablenessI scored 30(me)-43(husband) in agreeableness. It is characterized by less forbid emotions, give care jealousy, revenge and more empathy. People low in this trait look to win arguments not people, lean more towards excitement and dominance. I guess my husband sees me as being as agreeable because he himself is a agreeable per son and sees positive in others always whereas I am more critical of myself. I am supportive of friends and family and empathize a lot with people to an extent that I feel angry if my cockeyed ones are insulted. But at the same time if someone does something revile even if it is my mother I will not stop myself from confronting her. So, I must say I agree with my score of 30.Emotional stabilityI Scored 16(me)-29(husband) in Emotional stability. It is characterized by stability in emotions in various situations in life and they are calm, free from persistent controvert feelings. People rating low on this trait show negative emotions like anger, anxiety, depression, low tolerance to stress, mood swings and pessimism, Both me and my husband have scored me low on this scale. The reason is I do get evince easily. Exams, major decisions in life get me on my nerves. At those generation I am a different person angry, not comprehendible and irritable. But once I find solution to the p roblem in my mind, I immediately get back to being myself. I guess, I need to work on being more stable. The big 5 theory helps shed light towards cast of charactersation of human personalities and why different individuals exhibit different emotions and reactions when dealing with different social situations. Human behavior just like psychology itself is a broad specialty and having all the answers is virtually impossible. However having different theories give innumerabledetails that helps form a bigger picture of causes and variables that shape a human.Anju Priyadarshini

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Organisational Behaviour What Is Organisational Behaviour?

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR What is organisational doings? The canvas of homosexual behaviour, attitudes and performance within an organisational setting drawing on theory, methods and principles from such champaigns as psychology, sociology and cultural anthropology to learn about individual, groups and processes. Three diverse OB perspectives Macro-perspective the big picture Micro-perspective the smaller units Meso-perspective integration and startment in the midst of macro and micros Three levels of OB Individuals groups organisationsOB as a science Scientific discipline Theories and methods can be developed to better understand and explain behaviour Concerned with predictions and explanations Fredrick Windsor taylor four principles of scientific steering 1. Using scientific analysis, managers barely specify every element of an employees acetify out which replaces old rule-of-thumb methods (Job Design) 2. Managers portion out and whence train, t distributively and develop employees, unlike in the past when employees chose their avouch contribute and trained themselves (human Resource Management) 3.Managers are responsible for ensuring that all work is done according to their specification (Performance, Monitoring and rewards) 4. There is a sectionalization of labour based on expertise managers manage because of their superior fellowship while employees do what they are best at (the development of management profession) Human relations school Elton mayo Believed that the work problem (dissent, disobedience, industrial unrest) was a result of psychological disturbances brought about by the alienating disposition of work. Mayo thought that we can improve employee happiness bby making work more involving and by recognising its social nature.The hawthorn study Originally looked at the have-to doe with of working environment on productivity e. g. amount of unaccented workers were exposed to during work By spending so much judgment of convic tion around the workers, researchers began to notice a number of important social factors that had an impact on productivity Despite the isolating effects of standardisation and increase technical division of labour, work remains a group activity. As a result of their requisite for recognition, security and sense of belonging, workers will incline towards in orb groups whether formal work organisation reflects this or not.Informal group exercises a strong form of social control over the work usage and attitude of its members. Managers should recognise the impact of these informal groups in exerting an influence on productivity. Organisations should seek to ensure a good fit between formal and informal groups. Webers formal bureaucracy is characterised by specialize individual positions Formal hierarchy Rules and standard operating procedures Set boundaries for each dept Standardised training and career paths Changes from traditional to modern Intensifying competitor meant that companies needed to become More innovative in wrong of node serviceImplement continuous improvement in manufacturing More diverse in terms of products and services they offer New organisation model Networked emphasis on team ups, systems for sharing information, cross functional involvements Flat reducing layers and empowering more employees supple intensified completion, accounting for sprightliness cycles, unpredictability of external environment divers(prenominal) career trajectories, core and peripheral workforces Global interactions across boarders Employment race Employment relationship is the set of arrangements and work practices that describe and govern the relationships between employees and employers.The relationship consists of economic, social and psychological contracts. The psychological contract refers to a shared cultural understanding of what is right, good and fair about the ongoing exchange. light upon habit relationship changes Short term task security life time employment to life time employability and being able to move from internal labour markets Advancement ever-changing notions of advancement Job titles changing and multi-dimensional Compensation pay for friendship or skills, team-based pay Flexibility telecommunicating work hours, contract and new forms of bargaining Chapter summary 1Define organisational behaviour and organisations, and discuss the splendour of this palm of inquiry Organisational behaviour is the study of what people think, feel and do in and around organisations. Organisations are groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose. OB theories help people to 1. Make sense of the workplace 2. Question and rebuild personal mental models 3. Get things done In organisations Compare and secernate the four perspectives of organisational effectiveness The open systems perspective views organisations as complex organisms that fit within an external environment.They depend on the external enviro nment for resources then use organisational subsystems to transform those resources into outputs that are returned to the environment. Organisations receive feedback from external environment to make a good fit with that environment. Fit occurs by adapting to the environment, managing the environment or moving to another environment. According to the organisational learning perspective, organisational effectiveness depends on the organisations contentedness to acquire, share, use and store valuable association. The ability to acquire and use knowledge depends on the firms absorptive capacity.Intellectual capacity consists of human capital, morphologic capital and relationship capital. Knowledge is retained in the organisational memory companies in any case selectively unlearn. The high performance work practices (HPWP) perspective identifies a mail boat of systems and structures to leverage workforce potential. The most widely identified HPWPs are employee involvement, job au tonomy, developing employee competencies and performance/skill-based rewards. HPWPs improve organisational effectiveness by building human capital, increasing adaptability and strengthen employee motivation and attitudes.The stakeholder perspectives state that leaders manage the sideline of diverse stakeholders by replying on their personal and organisational determine for guidance. Ethics and unified responsibility are natural variations of values-based organisation because they rely on values to guide the most appropriate decisions involving stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility consists of organisational activities intend to benefit society and the environment beyond the companys contiguous financial interest or legal obligation.Debate the organisation opportunities and challenges of globalisation, workforce mixed bag and acclivitous employment relationships Globalisation, which refers to various forms of connectivity with people in other separate of the world has s everal economic and social benefits but it may also be responsible for work intensification, as well as reduce job security and work life balance. Workforce diversity is plain at both the surface level and deep level in that respect is some evidence of deep level diversity across generational cohorts. Diversity may give a competitive advantage by improving decision making and team performance on conflict.One emerging employment relationship trend is the call for more work-life balance. Another employment trend is virtual work, particular working from home. Working from home potentially increases employee productivity and reduces employee stress, but it may also lead to social isolation, bring d protest promotion opportunities and increased tension in family relations. Discuss the anchors on which organisational behaviour knowledge is based The systematic research anchor states that OB knowledge should be based on systematic research, which is consistent with evidence-based mana gement.The multidisciplinary anchor states that the field should develop from knowledge in other disciplines (psychology sociology, economics) not just from its own isolated research base. The contingency anchor states that OB theories generally need to consider that there will be different consequences in different situations. The multiple levels of analysis anchor states that OB topics may be viewed from the individual, team and organisations levels of analysis.

Sammy will definitely feel this event all his life

The basic plot of John Updikes A & P is that Sammy clerks in a grocery store. Stokesie is a young man who as well as works at the store, except he is there to support his family.There ar some bold girls that arrive into the store and atomic number 18 frowned upon by the managework forcet. The girls are dressed in beach attire and when Lengel (the manager) refuses to serve them, Sammy quits his job. Lengel warns him Youll experience this for the rest of your breeding, (Updike) and Sammy agrees.Sammy willing definitely feel this event all his life. By quitting his job, he is rejecting Lengel and his middle-class, uptight attitude. In Sammys mind, the girls should be able to come in dressed in beach ware and not be judged. Frivolous behavior should be tolerated and not frowned upon. If they are dressed to scarce and cause people to look at them, thats okay. Theyre young. If men look at them, that is okay too. Its okay to look at pretty girls without feeling guilty.Sammy really g rows up throughout the course of the story. As Sammy walks away from the store he realizes how hard the world was going to be to me hereafter (Updike). Sammy realizes that much of the world is filled with people who think same Lengel, and that he will be the one to buck the system. He is not willing to go along with the status quo, and that will make his life difficult.The Lengels of the world are just too narrow to simply have it off watching a pretty girl. Sammy will be able to be intimate those simple pleasures without condemning them.In rejecting Lengels values, he is also rejecting the values of his family or his circle of society. He decides that he wants more in life than vying for a manager position in an A & P. He refers to the shoppers as sheep and decides that he does not want to be a sheep.The girls in their swimsuits simply uphold bring about that epiphany. Sammy has really won according to his own values, but in the minds of many others, he has lost. Everyone will know that he quit. His parents will most likely be disappointed and might think his reasons frivolous. It is alone the beginning of bucking the system for Sammy.Works CitedUpdike, John. A & P.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Engine Lab Report

railway locomotive research lab Report Diesel Engine Load/N burn snip/s dH/mmH2O Speed/r. p. m Temp/? Air expenditure/kg/H provoke aspi proportionalityn/kg/H Air- raise proportion great powerfulness/kw Efficiency/ % 40 121. 6 17. 5 3018 26. 6 130. 16 2. 47 52. 7 4. 5 0. 019 80 94. 72 17. 5 3009 26. 7 130. 14 3. 17 41. 05 8. 97 0. 059 125 72. 76 17 3009 26. 8 128. 25 4. 12 31. 13 14. 02 0. 111 171 56. 95 17 3000 26. 9 128. 23 5. 72 24. 33 19. 12 0. 161 212 46. 06 16. 5 3006 27. 1 126. 28 6. 51 19. 40 23. 6 0. 202 232 41. 20 17 3010 27. 2 128. 16 7. 28 17. 60 26. 03 0. 216 Petrol Engine Load/N Fuel magazine/s dH/mmH2O Speed/r. p. m Temp/? Air consumption/kg/H Fuel consumption/kg/H Air-fuel proportionality tycoon/kw Efficiency/ % 40 285 2 3000 26. 8 42. 50 3. 19 13. 32 4. 47 0. 014 109 191 7 3000 27. 4 79. 44 4. 77 6. 65 12. 19 0. 072 160 160 8 2950 28. 2 84. 81 5. 69 14. 91 17. 60 0. 125 248 110. 5 14 3000 28. 2 112. 8. 24 13. 62 27. 74 0. 215 313 9 3. 56 20 3000 28. 3 145. 4 9. 73 14. 94 35. 01 0. 290 374 71. 81 27 3000 28. 4 168. 9 12. 68 13. 32 41. 83 0. 317 pic common fig 1 pic fig 2 From Fig 1, we have it off that air-fuel ratio of the flatulency locomotive is non changing oftentimes as the brake power increases, however for the diesel railway locomotive motor motor railway locomotive, the air-fuel ratio drops as the power increases. This is because the throttle which is situated in the air in abridge communication channel of the flatulency engine.For the petrol engine, the combustion takes aim in the whole cylinder, so the air-fuel ratio should be maintained to admit sure the combustion to take place rapidly enough all the time. The throttle exit right the air-fuel ratio. For the diesel engine, the combustion takes place around individual droplets of the fuel spray, accordingly the output is related to the amount of fuel injected, and the air flow is not controlled. Fig 2 shows that the might inc reases with the power for both engines, however the diesel engine reaches high efficiency than the petrol engine.This is because, for the diesel engine, the input of the fuel is in the form of fuel spray. The compression of the fuel and air is avoided. This will make the maximum cylinder volume to minimum larger, and leads to higher(prenominal) efficiency. So, the petrol engine should be used in light vehicles because it is lighter than the diesel engine and it can reach higher power than the diesel engine which produces higher speed of the cars. And, the diesel engine should be used for the weighed down(p) vehicles, since it has higher efficiency. The heavy cars need to do to a greater extent work, so the efficiency is more important to them.Engine Lab ReportEngine Lab Report Diesel Engine Load/N Fuel Time/s dH/mmH2O Speed/r. p. m Temp/? Air consumption/kg/H Fuel consumption/kg/H Air-fuel ratio Power/kw Efficiency/ % 40 121. 6 17. 5 3018 26. 6 130. 16 2. 47 52. 7 4. 5 0. 019 80 94. 72 17. 5 3009 26. 7 130. 14 3. 17 41. 05 8. 97 0. 059 125 72. 76 17 3009 26. 8 128. 25 4. 12 31. 13 14. 02 0. 111 171 56. 95 17 3000 26. 9 128. 23 5. 72 24. 33 19. 12 0. 161 212 46. 06 16. 5 3006 27. 1 126. 28 6. 51 19. 40 23. 6 0. 202 232 41. 20 17 3010 27. 2 128. 16 7. 28 17. 60 26. 03 0. 216 Petrol Engine Load/N Fuel Time/s dH/mmH2O Speed/r. p. m Temp/? Air consumption/kg/H Fuel consumption/kg/H Air-fuel ratio Power/kw Efficiency/ % 40 285 2 3000 26. 8 42. 50 3. 19 13. 32 4. 47 0. 014 109 191 7 3000 27. 4 79. 44 4. 77 6. 65 12. 19 0. 072 160 160 8 2950 28. 2 84. 81 5. 69 14. 91 17. 60 0. 125 248 110. 5 14 3000 28. 2 112. 8. 24 13. 62 27. 74 0. 215 313 93. 56 20 3000 28. 3 145. 4 9. 73 14. 94 35. 01 0. 290 374 71. 81 27 3000 28. 4 168. 9 12. 68 13. 32 41. 83 0. 317 pic Fig 1 pic Fig 2 From Fig 1, we know that air-fuel ratio of the petrol engine is not changing much as the brake power increases, however for the diesel engine, the air-fuel ratio drops as the power increases. This is because the throttle which is situated in the air intake duct of the petrol engine.For the petrol engine, the combustion takes place in the whole cylinder, so the air-fuel ratio should be maintained to make sure the combustion to take place rapidly enough all the time. The throttle will adjust the air-fuel ratio. For the diesel engine, the combustion takes place around individual droplets of the fuel spray, therefore the output is related to the amount of fuel injected, and the air flow is not controlled. Fig 2 shows that the efficiency increases with the power for both engines, however the diesel engine reaches higher efficiency than the petrol engine.This is because, for the diesel engine, the input of the fuel is in the form of fuel spray. The compression of the fuel and air is avoided. This will make the maximum cylinder volume to minimum larger, and leads to higher efficiency. So, the petrol engine should be used in light vehicles because it is lighter than the diesel engine and it can reach higher power than the diesel engine which produces higher speed of the cars. And, the diesel engine should be used for the heavy vehicles, since it has higher efficiency. The heavy cars need to do more work, so the efficiency is more important to them.

Differentiating Between Market Structures

Public goods ar goods from which the whole f come inrnity can take gain ground with discover the need of purchasing them. Private goods on contrast be stars from which the public can yet take good by purchasing them. And it holds no external benefit for others. Public goods be more than to do with government actions, while merchandises can efficiently portion private goods. Ten loaves of bread can be divided in many ways but others can non take benefit of the loaf I eat. I pay for it and thus only I can benefit from it as its a private good.On the other hand matter defense once provided, affects every unity equally. Nothing would change the succeed of national tribute being provided. Its the same for all (Blurt it, 2009). Common resources argon goods that be rival but not excludable. This means that the anglees in the ocean for simulation argon rivalries because when a person catches the fish, on that point ar fewer fish for the next person to catch whereas they a rent excludable because it is difficult to stop peck from fishing. Public goods and common resources are both available to all.Natural monopoly exists as a result of high fixed cost operating in an industry. Its a situation where for technical reasons there cannot be more than one provider of a good. Public utilities are usually considered to be vivid monopolies. Basically, private goods are those that are excludable and rival both. Public goods are which are neither excludable nor rival. Common resources are rival but not excludable and in the end the natural monopolies consist of goods that are excludable but not rival.The demand and tot of labour party are determined in industry market. The participants in the fag market are workers. Workers append labor to firm in supercede for wages. Firms demand labor from workers in exchange for wages. The labor demand is the amount of labor a firm is exiting to employ at a given point in time. This type of demand may not necessaril y be in long-run equaliser and is determined by the real wage, this labor is paid leaveingly by the firms and the amount of labor the workers are willing to hang on at that wage.The labor supply in a market is the keep down of workforce available or the clement resources in a particular labor market. The supply of labor is the number of hours the workers work at a given real wage rate. An change magnitude wage rate cast ups the number of income earned and increase the opportunity cost (Cliff Notes, n. d. ). Supply and demand curves shift and intersect. Where they visit is current labor labyrinthine sense. The labor equilibrium is where the demand for labor and the supply of labor are equal. labor party demand curve shifts with changes in booms, recessions, and productivity etceteraSupply curve shifts with things such as increase in working population, decrease in non-work benefit etc. An increase in labor demand results in an increase in both the equilibrium wage and the equilibrium level of employment. A reducing in it results in a decrease in both the equilibrium wage and the equilibrium level of employment. An increase in labor supply whereas results in a scorn equilibrium wage, but an increased equilibrium level of employment. Conversely, a reduction in labor supply results in a higher equilibrium wage but a lower equilibrium level of employment.Differentiating Between Market StructuresKudler bonny Foods is an presidential term that introduces bon vivant foods and wines to the San Diego Metropolitan area. The organization currently has three locations (La Jolla, Del Mar, and Encinitas). Kudler picturesque Foods stocks its recent bakery, fresh produce, fresh meats and seafood, condiments and packaged foods, and cheeses and specialty dairy departments with local and imported goods. Kudler fair Foods motto is Shopping the World for the Finest Foods and its mission statement is Kudler Fine Foods is committed to providing our customers with the finest selection of the very best foods and wines so that your culinary muckles can come true.Both Kudlers motto and mission statement speak to the organizations passion of missing to provide only the very best to their customers. In reviewing Kudler Fine Foods information, the organization appears to be competing quite well in the marketplace. The financials portion of Kudlers strategical plan show the organization staying on the positive side of the wampum margin despite only four months out of the year of supra average sales. Also noted in the strategic plan are every store that in some way are confusable to Kudler Fine Foods. These stores are more focused on supplying their customers with one or two services.Because Kudler Fine Foods carries a larger variety of items, these stores only pose a small threat, if any, to Kudler Fine Foods. Kudler Fine Foods does plan to wet one of their current locations and open a store in another(prenominal) location but this is not bec ause of competition, rather a smaller customer base. Kudler Fine Foods marketing overview shows an bellicose plan on how the organization will change certain aspects in different areas of the company. There is plan for a new frequent shopper program, which is nontraditional in a sense and will give customers rewards instead of discounted values.Ideas on how to expand the organizations services to for its customers increase gross as well as how to increase efficiency and cut costs for the company are likewise mentioned. The expansion of services will admit offering parties in the store to teach the consumer on how to prepare mightily gourmet dishes using items sold at the store locations. These sessions will be conducted be celebrity chef, food experts, and others. Merchandise selection and pricing is also addressed in the marketing overview.Providing total customer bliss by way of constantly introducing new food items is the focus on how to reach out this task. The marketing surveys for Kudler Fine Foods shows an average of about 71% of customers shopping at the Kudler Fine Foods to be satisfied all around. However, the customer satisfaction rate did move by 1. 02% from 2011 to 2012. Although a one percent drop in customer satisfaction is not largely significant, if the issues in which the drop is associated with are not addressed, Kudler Fine Foods can expect a bigger drop every year as customer find newer stores to shop at.Looking more closely at the surveys, they focused on the stores hours, atmosphere and decor, selection of products, whether the ware was a good value for the money, attractiveness on how the merchandise is displayed, satisfaction with the purchased merchandise, if the customer service representatives were courteous and knowledgeable, and the customers over-all satisfaction with the store. Although most of the areas the surveys touched on showed a customer satisfaction rate of 70% or more, there were a few areas that were at a sat isfaction rate in the 60% range.However, the survey results do show one area in which the customers were more disgruntled than satisfied in both 2011 and 2012. This area was whether the merchandise sold was a good value for the money. In 2011, 58. 22% of customers were dissatisfied in this area. That number went up to 58. 83% in 2012. Although not a large increase in percentage, this still does reflect the dissatisfaction rate in this area is climbing every year. Kudler Fine Foods organization appears to fall infra the noncompetitive competition market structure.First, in the strategic plan it states Kathy Kudler is the vision behind the organization. She intends to grow and expand the business for 10 15 years, at which time she will reach retirement age. Her intent is to sell the undefiled organization at that time and no longer be convoluted in the operation. This signifies that there is an easy entry and exit in this type of market, which is a feature of a monopolistic comp etition market structure. Second, in the Competitive Analysis section of the strategic plan it lists threefold stores in the same area as the Kudler Fine Foods location are and sell similar products.However, since the products being sold at these other stores are not leasely equal in brand and quality as what Kudler Fine Foods offers, this also points to the organization as being a monopolistic competition market structure. Although Kudler Fine Foods is defined as a monopolistic competition type market structure, it does not fully fall under(a) the same set of rules that a full monopoly type organization has. For instance, Kudler Fine Foods can set prices for the products it sells because its competition only offers similar products rather than exact product.However, if Kudler Fine Foods sets its prices too high, its customers have the option to shop for similar products elsewhere where the price is more to their liking. Kudler Fine Foods must find the precise price where it can maximize profits but not run their supply to low where the run the risk of not being able to meet the customers demands. Once Kudler Fine Foods finds the correct equilibrium price, it can expect to take in long-term profits. Some testimonials of competitive strategies for Kudler Fine Foods would be to continue to offer new products to their customers on a regular basis.Offering new products that competitors do not offer will ensure that Kudler Fine Foods controls that portion of the market. Another recommendation for Kudler Fine Foods would be to investigate and determine why eight months out of the year their profits are lower than the other four months. afterward concluding why this is, Kudler Fine Foods should proceed with a more aggressive ad campaign, initiate special product pricing, and any other strategies to increase their profits in these low performing months.A company comparable to Kudler Fine Foods would be Williams-Sonoma. With 252 locations that span 45 states, fou r provinces, and two countries, the Williams-Sonoma organization is staggeringly larger than Kudler Fine Foods, but offers the same type of products. These products range from constituent(a) and gourmet foods and wines and high quality and high priced utensils, cookware, bakeware, and many other items involve to produce a gourmet meal.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

How to Create Book Report Essay

We Are Witnesses Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust by Jacob Boas Rescue The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust by Milton Meltzer concealment to Survive Stories of Jewish Children Rescued from the Holocaust by Maxine B. Rosenberg Parts of the leger Report Title Page unfeigned Book Report circumscribe of Book Report 1. argue the shot of the give. 2. cook a synopsis of the book by discussing the real mortals/ pluralitys keep/lives. 3. Discuss the character/persons traits and support them with examples from the book. 4.Discuss the theme the pass of the book and some interesting facts you learned from this book. 5. Give your opinion of the book. Include the answers to the following *How would you rate the book? wherefore? *What digress of the book affected you and in what way? *Do you think the book gave an honest account of the personOs life? *Do you admire any of the people in the book? Why? Book Report Fiction creeses War by Carol Matas Lisas War by Carol Matas Parts of the Book Report Title Page Actual Book Report Contents of Book Report 1. Discuss the setting of the book. 2.Give a summary of the book by discussing the real persons life. 3. Discuss the main characters traits and support them with examples from the book. 4. Discuss the theme the message of the book. 5. Give your opinion of the book. Include the answers to the following *How would you rate the book? Why? *What part of the book affected you and in what way? *Do you think the book gave an honest account of a persons life during the Holocaust? Hint Follow guide sheets for book report for the tetrad elements of a book there is one more thing added this judgment of conviction your opinion.

Personal Branding Plan Paper Essay

I am a 13 course of study Army Veteran, with commitment, loyalty, ambitious but also practical. I am proceed to learn and grow within my position. I was a supply police sergeant in the military where I gained knowledge in different operational systems. I also render background in customer military service from Taco Bell, numerous banks and my current employment. I believe that Im a better employee because Ive attained a lot of diverse skills from the different employments I have had over the years. These skills help me to work bug out problems resourcefully. I have always been good at working with puny to no supervision. Identify 3 to 4 companies you want to work for and let off the reason why. Identify the best methods for contacting the companies and engaging those who might influence the hiring decisions. whizz high society I would love to work for is the incision of Veterans personal business piece Resource subdivision. Another company would be the Department of De fense. Another company is University Hospitals. I want to keep my talent in the medical or dental heavenss. I will summarize the reasons for employment at the respective(a) locations. As an employee of the Department of Veterans Affairs Human Resource Department I would be working for the leading most technological cutting-edge combine health c atomic number 18 facility in the Nation. I would have diverse opportunities for leadership positions at my disposal. With me having ties to the military and a disabled veteran I feel it is only necessary to continue in a field I am so passionate about. If I was to be leased at a Veterans Hospital I could transfer my military conviction to the civil side to retire using both military and civilian time as time served. I will also go about some of my same social welf bes as if I were still in the military. At this present time I am currently working for the Department of Defense as an Administrative Assistant for the Army Dental Laborat ory. The benefits are outstanding you receive 6 hours of compensable leave time per turn overperiod (Annual Leave, 2001).I also receive sick leave even off which is 4 hours per pay period. The Department of Defense also has a privacy fund that you can contribute to and the government will match my contributions up to five percent. Did I forget to mention I get paid holidays my only complaint here in this position would have to be there is no place for advancement in this office. Other places in the hospital where I am qualified to work there is dwell for advancement. The Department of Defense also has a Federal Student bring Repayment Program for certain positions. The University Hospital here in capital of Maine would also be a top contender in my choices of places to work. nevertheless though it has no affiliation with the military I would consider this hospital a third choice. It is the second largest acute care hospital in the region it is the only Magnet Hospital in th e surrounding areas. I would be a great asset to the University Hospital because of my previous put through in the labor and delivery department.The University Hospital likewise has eye-catching benefit packages. They have flexible shifts, opportunities for improvement to better positions, tuition repayment, and scholarships. The hospital in addition to the other benefits they have wellness education, a uniform unwrap on the premises, a credit union, and retirement funds. The University Hospital has 14 hospital or clinics in the surrounding area. Identify the best methods for contacting the companies for employment. All the hospitals applications are online for interested people to apply for the positions. The University Hospital has a local band number you can call to inquire about certain positions as well as online applications.With the Department of Defense and Department of Veteran Affairs you have to apply online and in addition to the application you also have to submit su pporting documents, to include previous job ratings. If you were ever in the military the DD 214 which is the discharge paper, any transcripts too. This paper has summarized my background and what makes me a preposterous person. Also it gives 3 companies I would like to work for and the reasons behind it. finally what is the best ways to contact the companies? Everyone is using some form of applied science to get their future employees, by computers, telephones and even knowing someone at the company are the best way to get your foot in the door.Reference PageAnnual Leave. (2001). Retrieved May 25, 2014, from OPM GOVERNMETN POLICY http//www.opm,gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/leave-administrative/fact-sheets/annua-leave/ University Health bang System. (2009). Retrieved May 26, 2014, from http//universityhealth.org/jobs.U4NcFPldWm8 VA Jobs Home. (2014, May 13 last updated). Retrieved May 26, 2014, from US Department of Veterans Affairs http//www.careers.gov

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Health Care Decisions of the Mentally Ill

The mentally sickly are an extremely threatened group when it comes to receiving adequate health do by as well as being allowed to make those critical decisions that affect their lives. Although the perception exists that as a whole the mentally sickly are ill equipped if non d induceright incapable of making those decisions, the reality is not so carve in stone. The stereotypes of the mentally ill both lessen their ability to act in the management of their illness and achieve desired treatment outcomes, and encourages discouraged and non-therapeutic attitudes and behaviors among clinicians making them receptive to the requests of their mentally ill patients. (National 2006 p. 80).The perception is that the mentally ill pose a danger to both themselves and society, therefore need to take hold all important decisions made for them, just as a barbarian would. The mentally ill are often coerced into making decisions that are uncomplete true to their wishes, or good for their lives. In reality, the majority of the mentally ill are quite capable of making their own health care decisions, and only rarely does their illnessaffect those decisions, requiring a family member or friend to step forward.Research has shown that the mental health population has delegate rates of some disease and health complications from psychiatric medication, and, in point tend to die at significantly younger ages than the general population. (Mental 2006 p. 1). in that location are, of course, circumstances where intervention by another party becomes a necessity. In the more than(prenominal) severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia or severe bi-polar disease, the ability to make rational decisions can become staidly impaired, requiring a guardian ad-litem to make decisions that are in the best amour of the patient.Our current system of HMOs also put the mentally ill patient at a further disadvantage because psychiatric disorders leave people ill-equipped to handle th e bureaucratic roadblocks inherent in managed care. (Perina 2002 p. 1). Because there are no concrete routine blood tests or CAT scans that definitively say that a person is ill, the science is much more subjective, therefore more fraught with stumbling blocks.As stated, in most cases, the mentally ill are still quite able to make their own health care decisions and should be allowed to do so without the stereotypes and hardships to make those decisions more difficult.Works CitedMental Health Articles (March 15, 2006). Creative Strategies Improve Medical fright forMentally Ill. Retrieved whitethorn 31, 2006 fromhttp//www.emaxhealth.com/7/4939.htmlNational Academics Press (2000). Improving the lumber of Health Care for Mental andSubstance Abuse Patients. Retrieved May 30, 2006Perina, Kaja. (Mar/April 2002). Battling for Benefits. Retrieved May 31, 2006

Eating Too Much Meat Will Kill You Essay

Bill Cosby erstwhile stated, Did you ever see the customers in health- intellectual nourishment stores? They atomic number 18 pale, skinny people who liveliness half dead. In a steak house, you see robust, ruddy people. Theyre dying, of course, b atomic number 18ly they look terrific. On average, Ameri rouses learn ab divulge 8 oz. of tenderness a day, twice the amount as the rest of the world about one-sixth of the total union consumed, U.S being less than one-twentieth of the population. Meat is generally delicious, contains racy sources of proteins and minerals. Some nutritional diet programs desire the Atkins Diet have link certain types of substance-based diets to weight loss. On the contrary, have too lots philia has been linked to certain type of cancers, gritty cholesterol and an increased endanger handst of contracting a foodborne illness. Americans consume to recognize that diets utmost in stub increases the cancer lay on the line and other health outgr owths. Evidence suggested that consuming union could damage the physical structure. In a commonwealth known for its love for hamburgers and steak, consumers want to cut mess on their essence for a healthy manners.Consumers also need to understand radiator grilleing ticker increase the risk of cancer. berth of the solution is alimentation healthy, but consumers also should be conscious(predicate) of what theyre eating. The great issue in America is quantity. Eating inwardness and fast-food join on a daily basis for seven days a week, 365 days a year, is a big reason why the risk for cancer and other health diseases is austerely high in U.S. join States slaughters to a greater extent than 10 billion land animals every year (Freston 802), and the foodstuff research firm Packed Facts stated Americans spends 142 billion dollar on beef, lily-livered, pork, lamb at market retails. Eating too much carmine plaza has been linked to increased risk of death from cancer and magnetic core disease, tally to a field from American Cancer Society, the more rosy-cheeked sum you eat will increase the risk for cancer. A ledger promulgated by the American Medical Association reported a 20-year study of nearly 149,000 adults between the ages of 50 and 74. Researchers examine the risk according to how much red totality, poultry, or lean the people had eaten.Researchers looked at how m some(prenominal) people develop colon cancer after the study. The results were 30% to 40% are more likely to develop cancer in the rase part of the colon. People who ate the most processed essences were 50% more likely to develop colon cancer (Parish 6). Eating just threesome ounces meat a day increases the consumers chance of dying by 13 per centum, and 20 percent increase if eating processed meat, like bacon and hot dogs. alone it doesnt mean we should completely cut out meat in our diet these statistics demonstrates that the less meat you eat, the better. Consuming m eat damages the body. According to Dr. Oz, from the Dr. Oz Show, eating a steak dinner can carry two to three days to get out of your guts (par. 3). Red meat takes more than 24 hours to completely digest. In the mean time, it is in your intestine rotting at 98 degrees, sending toxins through the body.Eating whatsoever food that does non completely digest will ruin your health. What happens is that the humane stomach acids are not made to break meat low-spirited efficiently be bear of its high fecund and protein contents. The body lacks the enzymes that digest proteins in the stomach. Protein digestion in general takes place in the first section of the small intestines where the pancreas secretes the types of digestive enzymes to alleviate break down nutrients into energy and allow the nutrients molecules enter the bloodstream. Hence, meat takes durable as it has to pass into the stomach and the intestines, opposed to carbohydrates, which are broken down easily by saliva an d the stomach. Although red meat is digestible than either other food sources such as rice and vegetable, it remains in the digestive system for a hankerer outcome of time, leaving the meat to rot in your intestines. Dr Klein believes that animal protein is the primary cause for the inflammation of the intestines because meat rots in your stomach (4).It explains why eating animal protein for a long period of time can increase the risk of colon cancer. to a fault the kidneys work to remove excess protein from your body. Eating too much protein can stress out the kidney, leading to kidney damage. Grilling meat is a system that most people are familiar with. Grilling is part of American culture it brings family and friends together for the holidays like Independence Day. Grilling is a system of parrying food hot and fast on your grill. Burgers, poultry, beef, seafood are typically broiled. Grilling is actually a much healthier option than heat food because it is low robust and you can grill food without adding embrocate on them. But unfortunately, grilling food may potentially expose the risk for cancer. Those juicy hamburgers, especially the charred ones contains cancer create chemical substance called carcinogen. When you grill meat, some of the fat drips down to the charcoal or flame and the dirty dog carry the carcinogen known heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to form.These compounds have been shown to affect our DNA and readiness cause cancer. PAH is the same smoke from forest fires, coal burning, car tire and smoking. Exposure to high amounts of PAH is on the hook(predicate) to your health and long term moving-picture show increase the risk of cancer. According to 2007 study in Epidemiology, women with high intakes of grilled, broiled or smoked meats over their lifetime had a 74 percent chance of developing breast cancer (373). It is also important to not that these women has low intake of fruits and veg etables. Most people are not aware of the carcinogen when they are grilling the meat. But lets face it, grilled meat taste technical and people should not give up on their grass fed steak or burgers from the grill. There are duo ways to grill fullly and reducing carcinogen. 1. Marinating meats for at least several(prenominal) hours that contains herb and spices can dramatically reduce HCA.Herbs/spices is highly potent antioxidant that helps resist HCA formation. 2. Pre-cook the meat in either the oven or microwave and finish it on the grill to decrease the amount of the carcinogen. 3. Pick prevailer cuts like skinless wimp, lean beef or pork it decreases the fat from dripping down on the open flame. It also important to remember that well- wearye meat has a higher concentration of carcinogen. Medium-rare, or medium cook is healthier prime(prenominal) than well done. These tips to reduce and prevent carcinogen is a safe way to consume grilled meat, but what about eating house s that serves grilled meats? Unfortunately, the meat holds carcinogens. Study shows restaurant meat such as burgers, ribs, and chicken carry substantial amounts of carcinogen. a few(prenominal) years ago, KFC calls their new Grilled Chicken the better-for-you chicken for health- conscious customers.But a PCRM a test shows the grilled chicken contains a high level of carcinogen (Sullivan 12). Consumers eating grilled chicken from popular restaurant bondage are exposed to substantial level of carcinogen. A study published in Nutrition and Cancers show that an independent laboratory examined one snow samples from seven popular restaurants, and Phip, a carcinogen, was institute in all the samples (33). These findings clearly show that eating grill chicken can potentially cause cancer. Consumers deserve to know what theyre eating is just as worsened as a greasy high-fat fried chicken. It misleads consumers to think grilled chicken is healthy diet but in actuality a grilled chicken s alad can increase the risk of breast cancer, prostate cancer, and other dangerous health disease. If that the case, shouldnt the government or chain restaurant issue warning labels on their product? Since Tobacco Company labels their pack with a warning that cigarette causes cancer restaurants serving cancer-causing meat should do the same.When parents cook chicken for their children, they try to be health conscious. If people knew there were high levels of carcinogens in their grilled chicken, they may not choose it as a healthy alternative. Meat is part of American culture Western men often forge a strong link between eating meat and masculinity. Eating too much meat is a universal problem in American Society. I believe most Americans dont realize that theyre eating too much meat. When analyze the size of the burger were eating today to the past decades, our burger has gotten bigger. Bacon is a big part of American culture today. It brings child-hood memories of how mothers coo ked bacon for their children. It is also a common breakfast food and is often associated with family gatherings. But, eating bacon every single day of your life has life threatening repercussion to your health. Most processed meat like bacon or hot dogs contains sodium nitrate. Sodium nitrate is a food additive used in many processed meats.It increases shelf life, gives any meat a fresh appearance, improves the smoky flavors of bacon, and slows the rate of the foul smell, and reduces bacterium (Kortboyer 5). It seems sodium nitrate is a great additive but it is astray regarded as a toxic ingredient. It is a highly carcinogenic chemical and once it enters the human digestive system it release toxin to a repress of internal organs including liver and pancreas. USDA tried to ban sodium nitrate in the 1970s but was vetoed by food manufacturers who complained that they are trying to ban bacon from America and insisted the additive was safe. The sodium nitrate is found in almost every meat package. Its listed right on processed meat products like bacon, turkey, hot dogs, and meats in canned soups. If its so dangerous, why does food manufactures use it? It sells more meat products because it makes the meat appear fresh and vibrant.Consumers are often influenced by the appearance of the meat, and deplorably they will buy meat that looks fresh because of the additives, but in reality, the meat could be months old. A proven strategy to help combat sodium nitrates is to consume large doses of vitamin C and E before your meal. some other safe alternative is purchasing nitrite-free meat to reduce the exposure to sodium nitrate. But, meat without nitrates is prone to spoilage. I believe meat industry uses the saturated fat argument to distract consumers from real issues like cancer. Fruits with high saturated fat like coconut juice wont increase a psyche risk of cancer to jump up 50%. The real issue is whats added to the meat during processing and packaging. While ea ting too much meat can be dangerous, the solution is to consume less. Meat is plenteous in protein and the body needs protein to maintain cellular tissue. Reducing meat intake benefits the bones. According to Dr. Campbell of Cornell University, animal sourced proteins extract more calcium from the bones, causing the bone to weaken (par. 4).Another good benefit of cutting bet on on meat is it that makes the consumer eat more nutritious foods. A study from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported that participants who were served a meal with less meat ate more vegetables (Rolls 916). Eating small portions of good quality meat can help curb meat cravings and will not jeopardize the health. Many health education websites like meatless Mondays offer idea of cutting back on meat consumptions. Another healthy alternative is replacing meat with non-meat sources of protein. Small red beans, dimmed beans, legumes, dairy products are all good source of protein. While fish and seafood are technically meats, they do not carry the same risks as red meat, chicken, and pork because they contain low saturated fat and cholesterol.Non-meat protein not only has low saturated fat and cholesterol, they contain healthy fats, vitamins and minerals the body needs. Besides, the average person only needs about eight grams of protein per 20 lbs of body weight. Make no mistake, Americans love eating meats. Meat is essential part of a healthy diet, but over consumption of meat will kill you. America spends hundred of billion dollars on meat and its no wonder why cancer is epidemic in United States.Meat is considered a luxury in other countrys, but meat in America is readily available anywhere and consumers need to learn self-restraint. Meat like hot dogs and bacon is part of American culture, but consumers need to understand that meat industrys uses dangerous additives like sodium nitrate and eating it for a long period of time will have repercussion to your health. Strong evide nce claims that not only the harmful sodium nitrate harms the body, but also eating meat in general will damage the body. There are other healthy options like non-meat protein. But the solution to the problem is consumers need to be aware of what theyre eating and learn self-restraint.

Graphing a Wave Essay

NameA vibration is a squirm in sequence a curl is a wiggle in space and time. In this exercise, you will explore that connection by transferring the deed of the moment hand of a quantify (a vibration, even if a slow one), to a wave.Print out the image of a measure and open the spreadsheet called Grapher. You will find both of them in the same countersink where you found these instructions.Use a metric ruler to measure the displacement of the tip of the second hand every five seconds. Thats the outgo above or below the center line that connects the 3 and the 9. recite the number as positive if the tip is above the line (towards the 12) and electronegative if below (towards the six). Enter each value in the tinted boxes in the Grapher shot and it will immediately plot them for you.Then answer the questions based on your graph.1) What is the period of this wave, that is, the time for one complete cycle, in seconds? The period of the wave is .02 seconds2) What is the bounty of the wave?The bounty is .013) If we had started from some other initial position say, when the second hand was on the 3 would the period still be the same?noyes X4) Again, if we had started when the second hand was on the 3, would the amplitude still be the same?noyes X5) So again, if we had started when the second hand was on the 3, what would be different? Though we are startle from a later point, the period would still be the same distance, and amplitude is reliant on the period so if the period is the same and so so is the amplitude. Simply the seconds from which we start measuring would be one snick behind, so the arch of each wave would be 5 seconds earlier.6) employ the period from question 1, find the frequency of the wave. That frequency is of course management too low for us to hear. Please round you answer to third digits, not counting the starting zero that is, round it to four quantitative places total.The frequency is .0125 Hz7) If you had used the same pic ture of the same clock but had graphed the minute hand instead, what would replace about the graph? zipper would change at all.The frequency would change.The amplitude would change. X8) If you had plotted the motion of the second hand on your watch instead of the clock that you printed out, what would change about the graph?Nothing would change at all.The frequency would change. XThe amplitude would change.9) Since you are plotting displacement on the y-axis and time on the x-axis, this is an good example of a _____ graph.Snapshot Xfrog-on-a-post10) Are you old enough to commemorate the 90s television series Home Improvement, starring Tim Allen? He was always saying more power and blowing up one voltaic tool or appliance after another by act to make itwork faster.Suppose that he was able to make a clock run so fast that the second hand do one full lap in only one-tenth of a second (0.10 s), and suppose that it tapped a water surface each time it reached the bottom of its motio n. If the waves it produced were 4.0 cm apart, at what speed (in cm/s) would they snuff it?The Waves would travel 40cm/s

Friday, February 22, 2019

Particle Accelerators

What are element flatulences used for? A mite accelerator is a twirl that uses electric palm to propel electrically charged particles in a vacuum, which approach the speed of light, towards each opposite and collide. The result hopefully being that the kinetic zip in the particles and some other energy converted into sub atomic particles or various types of atomic radiation. thither is much than whizz type of particle accelerator they come in cardinal basic types Linear Circular Linear Accelerators The linear accelerator, or linac, uses microwave technology to accelerate electrons in a part of the accelerator called the wave guide. atoms pass by means of a line of grasp metal thermionic valves enclosed in an evacuated cylinder. at bottom a hollow manager there is no electric field so a charged particle becomes at constant speed inside each of the tubes. amongst one tube and the next there is a potential oddment which varies in size and direction as an AC elect romotive force is employ to the series of tubes. Bunches of charged particles are accelerated from tube to tube, moving with the voltage wave as it travels along the linac. The largest linac in the world, at Stanford University, is 3. 2km long.It is clear of accelerating electrons to an energy of 50 GeV. Stanfords linac is designed to collide two beams of particles, accelerated in turn by the linac and temporarily unplowed in storage skirts. The two near important problems in the linac design are the accelerator cell voltage flatness and the crosswise mode impedance of the cell. Disadvantages The device length limits the locations where one may be placed. A great number of driver devices and their associated power supplies is required, increasing the aspect and maintenance expense of this portion. If the walls of the accelerating cavities are made of normally conducting material and the accelerating fields are large, the wall resistivity converts electric energy into heat qui ckly. On the other hand superconductors have various limits and are too valuable for very large accelerators. Cyclotron The cyclotron was the first circular accelerator. A cyclotron is somewhat exchangeable a linac wrapped into a tight spiral. Instead of umpteen tubes, the machine has only two hollow vacuum chambers, called dees, that are make like capital letter Ds back to back.A magnetic field, produced by a powerful electromagnet, keeps the particles moving in a curved path. The potential deviation amidst the dees constantly alternates in direction, so that all(prenominal) time the particles reach the gap they experience a forward acceleration. Within each dee the particles travel at constant speed during each half-revolution. As the particles gain energy, they spiral out towards the edge of the accelerator, where finally they exit. Advantages of the Cyclotron Cyclotrons have a single electrical driver, which saves both money and power, since more expense may be allocate d to increasing efficiency. Cyclotrons produce a continuous stream of particle pulses at the target, so the average power is relatively elevated. The compactness of the device reduces other costs, such as its foundations, radiation shielding, and the enclosing building. The worlds most powerful cyclotron, the K1200, is capable of accelerating nuclei to an energy approaching 8 GeV. Synchrotron The synchrotron is the most recent and most powerful member of the accelerator family. It consists of a tube in the shape of a large ring through with(predicate) which the particles travel the tube is surrounded by magnets that keep the particles moving along the nerve centre of the tube.The particles enter the tube after already having been accelerated to some(prenominal) one thousand thousand electron volts. They are accelerated at one or more points on the ring each time they make a sleep together circle around the accelerator. To keep the particles in a rigid orbit, the strengths of t he magnets in the ring are increased as the particles gain energy. In a few seconds, the particles reach energies greater than 1 GeV and are ejected, either like a shot into experiments or towards targets that produce a variety of elementary particles when struck by the accelerated particles.The synchrotron principle dope be applied to either protons or electrons, although most of the large machines are proton-synchrotrons. Differences between Cyclotron and Synchrotron Synchrotron has a single ring unlike the cyclotron which has two. Synchrotron is surrounded by magnets, cyclotron has two magnets in all. Synchrotron accelerates the particles at one or more places as opposed to cyclotron which accelerates the particle with the potential difference between the two dees. Synchrotron is much cheaper way to achieve high energy particles than the cyclotron and therefore the original cyclotron method is no longer used.Particle Detectors Particle Detectors are instruments used to detect a nd study fundamental subatomic particles and are one of the most important pieces of equipment in the particle accelerator. The particle sensor sees the particles and the radiation after the collision created by a particle accelerator. Geiger comeback A Geiger counter usually contains a metal tube with a thin metal wire along its middle, the space in between them sealed off and alter with a suitable gas, and with the wire at about +1000 volts relative to the tube.It measures ionizing radiation, and detects photons, alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, but not neutrons. An ion or electron penetrating the tube tears electrons off atoms in the gas, and because of the high positive voltage of the central wire, those electrons are then attracted to it. In doing so they gain energy, collide with atoms and release more electrons, until the process snowballs into an avalanche which produces an intimately detectable pulse of current. With a suitable filling gas, the flow of electricity fa ils by itself, or else the electrical circuitry can help stop it.The instrument was called a counter because every particle passing it produced an identical pulse, allowing particles to be counted but not telling anything about their identity or energy. Cloud Chamber The fundamental principle of the mottle chamber was discover by the British physicist C. T. R. Wilson. The cloud chamber consists of a vessel several centimetres or more in diameter, with a glass window in the top and a movable piston sortinging the lower side. The piston can be dropped rapidly to nail the volume of the chamber. The chamber is usually filled with dust-free air saturated with body of water vapour.Dropping the piston causes the gas to expand rapidly and causes its temperature to fall. The air is now supersaturated with water vapour, but the overmuch vapour cannot condense unless ions are present. Charged nuclear or atomic particles produce such ions, and any such particles passing through the chamb er leave behind them a domicile of ionized particles (see Ionization) upon which the excess water vapour will condense. This makes the course of the charged particle visible as a line of tiny water droplets, like the vapour trail left by an aeroplane.These tracks can be photographed and the photographs then analysed to provide culture on the characteristics of the particles. A cloud chamber is often operated within a magnetic field. The tracks of negatively and positively charged particles will curve in opposite directions. By measuring the radius of curvature of each track, its stop number can be determined. Heavy nuclei such as alpha particles form thick and dense tracks, protons form tracks of medium thickness, and electrons form thin and endorsement tracks.Although the cloud chamber has now been supplanted almost entirely by afterwards devices, it was used in making many important discoveries in nuclear physics. Bubble chamber The tattle chamber, is similar in operation to the cloud chamber. In a bubble chamber a liquid to a lower place pressure is kept at a temperature just below its simmering point. The pressure is lowered just before subatomic particles pass through the chamber. This lowers the faging point, but for an instant the liquid will not boil unless some impurity or disturbance is introduced. The high-energy particles provide such a disturbance.Tiny bubbles form along the tracks as these particles pass through the liquid. If a photograph is taken just after the particles have cut across the chamber, these bubbles will make visible the paths of the particles. As with the cloud chamber, a bubble chamber placed between the poles of a magnet can be used to measure the energies of the particles. Many bubble chambers are fitted out(p) with superconducting magnets instead of conventional magnets. Bubble chambers filled with liquid enthalpy allow the study of interactions between the accelerated particles and the hydrogen nuclei.