Friday, May 31, 2019

Vibrio cholerae, the Human Immune System, and Vaccines Essay -- Choler

vibrio epidemic cholerae, the Human Immune System, and Vaccines epidemic cholera remains a drastically severe disease, killing hundreds of people each outbreak. When ingested, it attaches to the mucosal lining of the intestines and disrupts the normal flow of ions so that thither is more sodium, chloride, and water in the enteric lumen than normal and results in massive diarrhea. epidemic cholera has do a global impact and been endemic in almost all parts of the world. Cholera control strongly emphasizes sanitation, clean drinking water, isolation, and cargonful victuals preparation. Two ways our body works against cholera as a self-limiting disease are sloughing cells and the secretory immunoglobulin (sIgA) antibody produced by mucus end-to-end our body. There are currently three types of available vaccines parenteral, whole killed V. cholerae O1 added with a recombinant part of adept of cholera toxins subunits (WC/rBS), and another one based on genetically manipulated V. cho lerae CVD103-HgR. Re inquisition on finding a safe, effective vaccine continues today in order to stop such a distructive disease.Cholera, a waste epidemic disease, has been around for hundreds of years and now annually kills 120,000 people worldwide (Weekly Epidemiological Record, 6). It is acquired by consuming water contaminated with feces or ingesting regimen that has been washed with contaminated water. Cholera is caused by a gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium called Vibrio cholerae which can be further classified into two cleave biotypes (El Tor and classical) and multiple other serotypes.Once inside the body, V. cholerae attaches and adapts itself to the mucosal epithelial lining of the intestines then produces an exotoxin, cholera toxin (CT), which disrupts the norma... ...e cholera pandemics, and gained much knowledge from each one, but it assuage manages to persist in the environment and continues to be a huge issue. Unfortunately, many developing countries take ove r have inadequate water supplies and sanitation but there is not much that can be done. Many mysteries remain unanswered and so the search for a safe and effective cholera vaccine continues on.SourcesDrasar, B.S., B.D. Forrest. Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae. LondonChapman & Hall, 1996.Salyers A., Abigail, Dixie D. Whitt. Bacterial Pathogenesis A molecular approach. Washington D.C.American Society for Microbiology, 1994Weekly Epidemiological Record No. 16. 2001. domain of a function Health Organization. July 25. 2007World Health Organization. Guidelines for Cholera Control. Geneva, 1993 Vibrio cholerae, the Human Immune System, and Vaccines Essay -- CholerVibrio cholerae, the Human Immune System, and VaccinesCholera remains a drastically severe disease, killing hundreds of people each outbreak. When ingested, it attaches to the mucosal lining of the intestines and disrupts the normal flow of ions so that there is more sodium, chloride, and water in the intestinal lumen than normal and results in massive diarrhea. Cholera has made a global impact and been endemic in almost all parts of the world. Cholera control strongly emphasizes sanitation, clean drinking water, isolation, and careful food preparation. Two ways our body works against cholera as a self-limiting disease are sloughing cells and the secretory immunoglobulin (sIgA) antibody produced by mucus throughout our body. There are currently three types of available vaccines parenteral, whole killed V. cholerae O1 added with a recombinant part of one of cholera toxins subunits (WC/rBS), and another one based on genetically manipulated V. cholerae CVD103-HgR. Research on finding a safe, effective vaccine continues today in order to stop such a distructive disease.Cholera, a devastating epidemic disease, has been around for hundreds of years and now annually kills 120,000 people worldwide (Weekly Epidemiological Record, 6). It is acquired by consuming water contaminated with fec es or ingesting food that has been washed with contaminated water. Cholera is caused by a gram-negative, rod shaped bacterium called Vibrio cholerae which can be further classified into two separate biotypes (El Tor and classical) and multiple other serotypes.Once inside the body, V. cholerae attaches and adapts itself to the mucosal epithelial lining of the intestines then produces an exotoxin, cholera toxin (CT), which disrupts the norma... ...e cholera pandemics, and gained much knowledge from each one, but it still manages to persist in the environment and continues to be a huge issue. Unfortunately, many developing countries still have inadequate water supplies and sanitation but there is not much that can be done. Many mysteries remain unanswered and so the search for a safe and effective cholera vaccine continues on.SourcesDrasar, B.S., B.D. Forrest. Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae. LondonChapman & Hall, 1996.Salyers A., Abigail, Dixie D. Whitt. Bacterial Pathogen esis A molecular approach. Washington D.C.American Society for Microbiology, 1994Weekly Epidemiological Record No. 16. 2001. World Health Organization. July 25. 2007World Health Organization. Guidelines for Cholera Control. Geneva, 1993

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Wyoming-Colorado Border Wars Essay -- USA Geography History Essays Pap

Wyoming-Colorado Border WarsDeep in the heart of the American West lie two of the largest, most rugged, beautiful states in the nation, both(prenominal) of which have long been engaged in a heated rivalry. North and South from one another, Wyoming and Colorado have been at a border warfare since before either even gained statehood. With 97,195 square miles, Wyoming is the 10th largest of all 50 states. While the state is vast in land, it is scarce in population. As of 2005, a mere 509,294 residents inhabit The Cowboy State making it the least populated state in the nation (Wyoming facts, demography). Colorado, however, has a population of 4,159,000 according to the 2000 Census. Colorado is the eighth largest state in the nation encompassing 103,598 square miles (Colorado, facts). These neighbors however, have had anything but friendly relations. From water rights to football games, the infamous Border War has raged for over a century and will not likely cease in the near future. Lon g before interstates, college sports teams and cross-country travelers divided and merged the two states of Wyoming and Colorado, a essential border acted as a divider between the two. Near Carr, Colorado any traveler venturing down Interstate 25 drives directly through graphic Fort. A very interesting and large rock formation, native Fort once acted as a rest stop for travelers between Colorado and Wyoming. As cities in both states grew closer to one another it was closed, however, it still acts as a natural border between the two states. Natural Fort served first base as the site of a battle between the Blackfeet and Crow Indians. On November 21, 1834 rival tribes, the Crow and Blackfeet, came across one another. Taking refuge within Natural Fort, the B... ...ns to find balance occur more frequently as time goes on. ReferencesThe Bronze Boot. Retrieved April 3, 2007, from Wyoming Athletics from http//wyomingathletics.com/trads/bronzeboot.html(October 19, 2005). ROTC Traditio ns Continue During Border War. Retrieved April 3, 2007, from University of Wyoming from http//uwyo.edu/news/showrelease.asp?id=3101Gibbard, F. (March, 2005). Wyoming v. Colorado A catchment area Decision. Retrieved April 3, 2007, from The Colorado Lawyer from http//www.cobar.org/tcl/tcl_articles.cfm?ArticleID=4063U.S. Supreme Court. (1940). State of Wyoming v. State of Colorado (309 U.S. 572 (1940), No. 10) from http//waterplan.state.wy.us/BAG/platte/briefbook/LaramieRiver1922.htmlNatural Fort, Carr, Colorado. Retrieved April 3, 2007, from Wallpaper Daves Gift Shop from http//wallpaperdave.com/fort.htm

Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners Essay -- Instruction

English Language Learners (ELL) require appropriate education in the English language. Reading, writing, listening, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are of import for an ELL student to regard. Educators should use individualized lesson plans that volition cater to each students abilities and knowledge of the secondary language. An ELL classroom is formed with students who do not eat up the capability to speak or read English fluently. These students are unable to participate in a mainstream classroom without some type of help. The ELL classroom will give students more time to practice English. fathomable InputComprehensible input is academic learning messages. An ELL student must participate if they want to learn the material. Krashen has five hypotheses for the science of a second language. These hypotheses are acquisition learning, comprehensible input, monitor, affective filter, and natural order (Krashen, 1981). Comprehensible input uses appropriate speech and lighth eaded explanation of tasks students need to accomplish during the school day. Students must be able to understand what is expected of them before they are able to complete the lesson or task. Comprehensible input will be made meaningful when the speaker uses visual supports, nonverbal gestures, paraverbal support (whispers, sighs), graphic organizers, and realia (real objects that students can see) that focus learners on the concrete here and now (Faltis, 2008). Visual aids are very beneficial for clarifying vocabulary terms to ELL students. On-Going, Specific, and Immediate FeedbackFeedback is critical it must be given without delay to assist with the education. There are many types of feedback direct, explicit written, individual conferences, di... ...4300068&v=2.1&u=canyonuniv&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&authCount=1. Krashen, S. D. (1981) Second language acquisition and second language learning. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Web http//www.sdkrashen.com/SL_Acquisition_and_Learning/ind ex.html.Morse, R., & Teyechea, N. (n.d.). Instructional strategies for ELL classrooms. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Web http//www.mrmorsesclass.com/Instructional%20Strategies.pdf. McCall, J. (2005) Building Concepts and Vocabulary Before Reading. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Web http//www.pd-network.com/lessons/frontloading_for_ell_article.pdf. Mustfa, N. (2002) Grouping in the ESL Classroom. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Web http//www.melta.org.my/ET/2002/wp03.htm. Rothenberg, C., & Fisher, D. (2007). Teaching English Language Learners A Differentiated Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education, Inc.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Natural Essay example -- essays research papers

The NaturalThe Natural written by Bernard Malamud was a very well written book. I really am not a big fan of baseball but I did enjoy this novel. This book is about never giving up no matter how dismal the situations gets. Roy Hobbs wishinged to be the best baseball player that ever lived, who broke all the records, and when he went walking down the street he wanted slew to say, Hey thats Roy Hobbs,the greatest player of all times. He would have been excellent and could have played baseball for many years, but someone didnt want that. He was shot and it injured him terribly. Hobbs finally made it back and was found by a scout and was sent to play for the worst team in the league. I like how Hobbs never gives up. He goes up against the corrupters, the seducers, and the glory destroyers. No one wanted to let Hobbs play because he was old, they thought he should be at the age to retire not to just begin. This book goes to show that you can do anything if you set your mind to it and if you want it terrible enough. Hobbs proved everyone wrong. He was worst possible thing happened, he met a girl. He started getting distracted and it a effected his game. Hobbs let a woman mess with his head. When Hobbs would go up to bat, he usually hit a home run but when he met this woman, he started striking out. I guess you could say that she was bad luck. Well, he eventually made is mind get cleared and was back to his old self. Another reason why I liked this novel is because it salmagundi of gives a l...

Hannah More vs. William Blake :: Poem Poetry Compare Contrast Essays

Hannah More vs. William Blake The Little Black boy and The Sorrows of Yamba are both anti-slavery songs. two Blake and More were against the political and social structure of slavery, but the way in which they choose to address the issue through their poetry is quite different. Differences in tonality, sexual activity of main characters, implications for the future of these characters, and the audiences these pieces were addressed to make for a good contrast to the similarities they inevitably share in being both anti-slavery.Blakes poem, The Little Black Boy seems to be more than hopeful then Mores, The Sorrows of Yamba, which is in accordance with comments made about Blakes general attitude in Songs of Innocence. This hopefulness appears to come from a combination of conviction and hope on the part of the author mixed with a type of ignorance on the characters part. The boy does not know any better therefore, he rouse envision a heaven where he is an equal to the white Engl ish boy in heaven with him. Mores poem does not seem as hopeful, it is more laden with grotesque imagery, something we might expect to see in a counterpart to Little Black Boy in Songs of Experience. Mores descriptions are corporeal, and the despair and offend seem to be shouting out of these carcasses with mangled flesh. Part of this difference in tonality may be due to the gender of the narrators and similarly the authors. As a man, Blake has always maintained the position a more privileged position in society compared to More simply because she is a woman. Although Blake may not represent with slavery, he is not writing from the perspective of a person who has been marginalized because of a biological difference within him, whereas More is. Perhaps because of this she has more knowledge and concord of the internal strife, and more of a right to speak, of a person of color being stripped of all they have - even the desire to live.However, beyond the little reading of the autho rs gender, though beneficial, there are lots of similarities and differences within the texts themselves. First, the genders of the narrators match up with the genders of the authors. One is a child, a boy, and one is an adult-the mother. I thought Blakes poem seemed to fit within the end of Mores poem through the mothers sentiment, in the sense that the little boy was accepting Christian teachings of heaven?

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Nietzsche: Exposing the Christianity Hoax Essay -- Nietzsche Philosoph

Nietzsche Exposing the Christianity HoaxFor thousands of years the Bible has represented the foundation for one of the largest religions in existence, Christianity. The Book affects millions of pluralitys lives. The creation of morals makes the biggest impacts on individuals and society. Morals atomic number 18 hinted at throughout The Book, but are clearly stated in Matthews gospel. These morals are written in a series c exclusivelyed the Beatitudes. through with(predicate) morals, laws are created and society is given guidelines, most people see this in a positive manner. Friederich Nietzsche, a philosopher from the late 1800s, views religion as a cult made for gutless minded simpletons who need something to carry them through life. Nietzsche is often viewed as an antichrist in fact he even wrote The Antichrist, an essay that seems to be his boarding pass and a ticket to hell. But there is some merit in his satanic ideas about religion one need only to view them from faithless look. Nietzsches ideas dismiss those of Matthew and how religion is a con to suppress the inviolate and make the weak feel important.Nietzsche sees religious people as weak people who hate the unwavering and independent. In essay one he calls all priests the great haters of historylikewise the most ingenious haters. (p. 33) They are not able to go out into the world and naturally live without supernatural excuses and reasons for twain their failures and successes. They cannot account for their own actions. In order to stop their feelings of weakness they must convince others that they are right and to follow them, giving them acceptance to in group. (p. 34) Through convincing sermons Christianity began to grow.This con of the weak people can be traced back to two words - good and bad. Before Christianity good and bad represented tender status (p. 25) Nietzsche claims that the concept of good was originally a synonym for nobility. At the same time anyone who was poor or simple w as referred to as bad. The words had no moral value and were not part of some higher judgment. It was priests that transformed these words so that good refers to the poor and lower class members of society, and the privileged are now seen as evil. This reversal of good and bad is seen in the Beatitudes. It is not the rich and powerful who are favored by God but the weak and poor. In Nietzsches mind nothing ... ...s are created. Unlike the weak and poor priest who must give sermons and use persuasion to gather followers, the super Man unknowingly attracts followers through behavior and could care less if he is accepted by, let alone leading, a group. Matthews gospel is a morally sound guideline to being the perfect Christian. Be kind to your neighbors. Help the poor. Be balmy and poor for you will inherit the earth. Nietzsche would spit on these virtues. He believes that the gospel is the word of the weak and unwanted. The meek will only make a difference if they band together and start a resentiment, which is when the meek revolt and turn against the noble or strong. This is the only way that the poor can gain any power in society. In Nietzsches eyes religion was the ultimate con on the human race. A few weak mens ideas spawned a worldwide movement to suppress the strong and noble. This movement will hinder the innate instinct to gain power and be the strongest util man realizes he controls his fate and religion is a fantasy.

Nietzsche: Exposing the Christianity Hoax Essay -- Nietzsche Philosoph

Nietzsche Exposing the Christianity HoaxFor thousands of years the Bible has represented the foundation for wizard of the largest godlinesss in existence, Christianity. The Book affects millions of volumes lives. The creation of morals makes the biggest impacts on individuals and society. Morals are hinted at through and throughout The Book, but are clearly stated in Matthews gospel. These morals are written in a series called the Beatitudes. Through morals, laws are created and society is given guidelines, nearly people see this in a positive manner. Friederich Nietzsche, a philosopher from the late 1800s, views religion as a cult made for purposeless minded simpletons who need something to carry them through life. Nietzsche is often viewed as an antichrist in fact he up to now wrote The Antichrist, an essay that seems to be his boarding pass and a ticket to hell. But there is some merit in his satanic ideas about religion one need only to view them from faithless eyes. Nietzs ches ideas dismiss those of Matthew and how religion is a con to suppress the strong and make the weak feel important.Nietzsche sees spectral people as weak people who hate the strong and independent. In essay one he calls all priests the great haters of historylikewise the most ingenious haters. (p. 33) They are not able to go out into the world and naturally live without supernatural excuses and reasons for both their failures and successes. They cannot account for their own actions. In devote to stop their feelings of weakness they must convince others that they are right and to follow them, giving them acceptance to in group. (p. 34) Through convincing sermons Christianity began to grow.This con of the weak people can be traced back to two words - smashing and bad. Before Christianity good and bad represented social status (p. 25) Nietzsche claims that the concept of good was in the beginning a synonym for nobility. At the same time anyone who was poor or simple was referred to as bad. The words had no moral value and were not blow up of some higher judgment. It was priests that transformed these words so that good refers to the poor and lower class members of society, and the privileged are now seen as evil. This reversal of good and bad is seen in the Beatitudes. It is not the rich and powerful who are favored by God but the weak and poor. In Nietzsches mind nonentity ... ...s are created. Unlike the weak and poor priest who must give sermons and use persuasion to gather followers, the Super Man unknowingly attracts followers through behavior and could care less if he is accepted by, let alone leading, a group. Matthews gospel is a morally sound guideline to beingness the perfect Christian. Be kind to your neighbors. Help the poor. Be meek and poor for you will inherit the earth. Nietzsche would spit on these virtues. He believes that the gospel is the word of the weak and unwanted. The meek will only make a difference if they band together and s tart a resentiment, which is when the meek revolt and turn against the noble or strong. This is the only way that the poor can gain any power in society. In Nietzsches eyes religion was the ultimate con on the human race. A few weak mens ideas spawned a worldwide movement to suppress the strong and noble. This movement will hinder the naive instinct to gain power and be the strongest util man realizes he controls his fate and religion is a fantasy.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Frankenstein Essay

Throughout the brisk, Frankenstein, a feminist theme subtly pervades the novel, and is crucial to the characters of the story, the plot line and the setting of the novel. The reasons for the creation of the monster lie inside Frankensteins own familial relationships, especially with the grief he experienced at the loss of his drive. Frankenstein is riddled with passive fe mannish characters who suffer throughout the novel. However, not one female character throughout the novel ever exhibits behaviour outside of the submissive female role.Elizabeth, Victors love, dies at the hand of the male creature, while waiting for Victor to rescue her. Elizabeth is unable to do anything to defend herself without the help of a man. Equally, Justine Moritz is sentenced to death for a murder the creature also committed. at once again, she is unable to defend herself and prove her innocence and dies for it. Some may argue that Justine is a victim of circumstance however, but her docile role leaves her helpless to practise her own destiny and defend herself against the false accusation.bloody shame Shelleys own family life affected contents of the novel as well. Her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, a noticeable activist in the feminist move ment, had died shortly after her own birth, and both her and her sister did not take kindly to their Fathers second wife, Mary Clairmont. During the nineteenth century, within Genevan society, where the novel was first scripted, men dominated the social and intellectual employment, whilst women only occupied the domesticated work/lifestyle.Although the passivity of female characters is at a constant throughout the novel, perhaps coming to the conclusion that Frankenstein is simply a misogynistic text is unreasonable. Shelleys feminist background, as a daughter of Wollstonecraft, questions the motives merchantman stereotyping traits of all of the female characters in the novel. Also, Elizabeth and Justine both died far before the end of the novel. It can be argued that by emphasising the conservative qualities of the characters, Shelley was able to also define the nix aspects of the static female ole by exterminating female characters that fit that role.By linking the submissive women with the negative demises, Shelley was able to emphasise the negative outcomes of their behaviour, contrasting with feminist ideals that would founder in turn saved the character in each case. It can be debated that Shelleys presentation of women after Caroline Beauforts death is the irre wanderable place of a mother or the assumption of roles by other characters. In the novel, Shelley seems to portray Carolines death as societys charm of women.Caroline is easily discarded, performs the role of the mother and then perishes. The women in Frankenstein could also be seen as virtuous and caring, as Caroline sacrifices her own health knowingly in order to look after Justine and Elizabeth Elizabeth was saved, but the consequences of this i mprudence were fatal to her preserver. Elizabeth appears to represent a replacement mother figure within the Frankenstein family, spurred on by expiry request of Caroline for her to supply her place to her younger children.Agatha, as well, supplies this need within the DeLacey family by playing the womanly role. However, it is argued by some that a mother can never be truly replaced, and according to the maternal and biblical symbolism throughout this novel, the subscriber could be inclined to believe this is Shelleys admittedly opinion. Mary Shelleys own mother died only eleven days after her birth, and it could be seen that the absence of a maternal figure is clear in Frankenstein.The absence of the maternal figure shows the app bent breakdown of a family unit and seems to inspire an oedipal complex within both Frankenstein and the monster. Like in Frankenstein, the role of men in Brave New ground has a complete higher standing to women, both physically and psychologically. A lso in comparison to Frankenstein, women have a better understanding of emotions and have more social roles. The picture of male superiority is uniform throughout the novel, and starts by introducing that overall dominance with the tour of the Hatchery. wholly the students on the tour are male and although maybe a minor detail, this shows that women are restricted to the things they do at an early age. During the tour, the students learn about pregnancies and that women are sterilised, yet the men arent. This short and important fact by the author exclaims the physiological dominance of men over women. The book shows no clear remonstration to leaving the future of their offspring in the hands of males, even if it is unhealthy. A specific character to talk about in Brave New World is Linda.Linda is the character in the novel who opposes the traditional role of women in the book (and that of women in Frankenstein). Like in a lot of Huxleys pieces, this novel centres severely around sex. In Brave New World, sex is no longer used for procreation but for distraction and pacification. The act has been de pieceised and devoid of human passion. I feel in this, Huxley tries to argue whether the future of our lifestyle is a subjugation of a natural inclination toward monogamy or the freedom of quiescence with many people.Linda is portrayed as the person opposing to modern culture, and causes the reader to question whether Huxleys portrayal of women in Brave New World is apt. For her ohmic resistance to the modern culture, Linda is isolated, condemning her and her son to a marginal existence because of this. Another female character worth mentioning in Brave New World is Lenina Crowne, the of import female character in the novel. Foster, Bernard and John are in awe of this woman, and it is puzzling to see why. She lacks intelligence, and is not particularly creative, interesting or unique.A sound out that Huxley uses constantly is pneumatic. The official definitio n of this is full of air, which seems to mean she is curvy and all-round sexy. It could be argued that Aldous Huxley purposely used this word as a double meaning, that shes pneumatic mentally also shes vapid (lifeless and dull). In contrast to Linda in the novel, Huxleys constant use of pneumatic implies that shes the epitome of the World State female. I feel it is clear throughout the novel, and corresponding to her previous upbringing and family, Frankenstein works as an indication to the treatment of women during that time.Her portrayal of inferior women is ironic given she is the daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft. Elizabeth could be seen as a sign of mistreatment to women as she is portrayed as the perfect woman who represents domestic bliss and harmony, while rejected by Victor Frankenstein in his pursuit of knowledge. The role of Elizabeth during the novel could work as a feminist process of monition also, as she magnifies Victors selfish character my more than sister, since ti ll death she was to be mine only. Likewise, in Brave New World, Aldous Huxley could have written the novel in order to show the wrong attitude towards women during the story. This could trigger spite towards the limits that women are still treated at, or were treated at when the novel was written. In conclusion to the two texts, the theme of feminism is still very relevant to the plot line in this modern age, although both works have been continuously adapted into different stories, plays and movies.Both Huxley and Shelley represent their female characters as inferior to and reliant on men, as well as more worked up in both texts. I feel both the authors represent their female roles like this, and in a negative light, to receive a reaction from the reader in order to think of how women are still treated in todays society and back then. The fact that Frankenstein is still present in literature, theatre, and cinema attests to the perpetuity of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein and her views on feminism in society.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Bread Baking an American Pasttime

Baking chicken feed at home can be both swordplay and rewarding. There is no better way to create a wholesome and welcoming atmosphere than by baking a fresh loaf of take out bread or having guest walk into a room that smells of cooling banana bread. Although bread making has been a part of American culture for centuries like a shots fast paced lifestyles has all but eliminated the art of making breads at home. However, it only takes a little flour and some kitchen know-how to revive this tradition for interior(prenominal) excellence. There are two main types of breads, yeast breads and quick breads.Yeast breads are the airy, light and fluffy breads that are used for sandwiches and dinner rolls. Quick breads generally require fruit or nuts in them and have a denser composition. One of the easiest and most rewarding types of yeast bread is milk bread. milk bread is a great place for the novice bread maker to start. It is easy and only requires milk, flour, salt, sugar and yeast, (All Recipes, n. d. ). In addition to the simple ingredients as the baker gains experience variations on this recipe can be made to include various cheeses, herbs or grains.Another type of yeast bread that has become a staple in kitchens crosswise America is a simple country French bread. This bread is often long and crusty and it goes great with soups or dishes with heavy sauces. Country French bread takes more time than milk bread but by using recipes similar to the one listed on www. breadworld. com, bread makers both professionals and beginners can produce the bizarre classic. Other types of breads that can be made at home include quick breads.These breads are called quick breads because they do not require the time that yeast breads need to rise. Common quick breads include banana bread, apple date bread or sour dough. Find amateur recipes for these breads at www. thejoykitchen. com. References All Recipes (n. d. ). Milk Bread. Retrieved April 6, 2009, from www. allrecipes. c om Fleischmans Rapid Rise Yeast (n. d. ). Country French Bread. Retrieved April 6, 2009, from www. breadworld. com The Joy of Cooking Cookbook (n. d. ). Quick Breads. Retrieved April 06, 2009, from www. thejoykitchen. com

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

Fee Penn Interview Report Campus design is an art consisting of multiple and overlapping designs care find the locations of teaching buildings, residence halls and so on. As a embellish painting computer architecture savant, I am interested in this topic. I interviewed prof David Michael Barbarism, who is an assistant professor of landscape architecture in Purdue University. Proof. Barbarism earned a bachelors of landscape architecture from Virginia Tech and a master of science from the department of landscape architecture at State University of New York Environmental School ofForestry. Before he came to Purdue, he worked in design firms from NYC and Washington D. C where he did a volume of different types of landscape designs including campus design. The day I interviewed Proof. Barbarism was a nice day with warm sunshine and blooming flowers everywhere, Purdue campus seemed to wake up from the dead winter. becoming weather leads to a nice mood, as does a nice campus design. W hen I asked Proof. Barbarism how Virginia Tech campus influenced his study life, he smiled and shared his story with me happily.He said the stolon time he straited around in Virginia Tech, he just fell in love with it and noticed that this place was the very place he valued to go without even learning about the programs. He public opinion the campus Just felt right to him. It had a consistent style, a great level of humanity students space from big wide open areas to little shelter private gathering areas. These were all what he thought a college should be like. From his point of view, campus landscape really has an unimaginable effect on students lives. Proof. Barbarism did some campus design project when he was working for design firms.When I asked the key points when designing a campus, he thought a few seconds and figured out two main points which were a aesthesis of scale and a sense of place. He explained that a sense of scale should bring comforts to people, for example , a sense of enclosure enough to feel like you are not standing in the fondness a big field. The designer should leave enough space to let tons of students to walk between teaching buildings during the ten-minute break. When talking about a sense of place, he used a very effective example which I easily understood.He said to me k, meet me at the bell tower, you know where we meet? The dissolver was obviously positive. In fact, thats the sense of place, the bell tower has its own location and its very different from the other places. Both a sense of place and a sense of scale were the two key points he mentioned for campus design. After asking some questions about his experience being a student and a landscape architect, we shared some different opinions on Purdue campus design. We reached agreements on some issues. For example, we both thought State passage was kind of annoying because it cut the campus into two pieces.I dream up the first time I arrived in Purdue in August, I let this campus was Just the north side of State Street. Proof. Barbarism nodded his head when I was talking and added his comments that there should be a special entry sign on State Street to let people know they were arriving in Purdue campus. We both thought State Street should be a good connection between the north and the south parts instead of being an awkward cut course of instruction of the whole campus. When talking about the locations of residence halls, we held different opinions.From my perspectives, Purdue should place the residence halls around teaching alluding so that students can have only a 5-minute walk to class Just like Hawkins Hall. However, Proof. Barbarism didnt agree with me. He shifted his chair, thought a few seconds and put some important points which I hadnt thought of before. He said the reason why many campus put academic areas separated from living areas was because their different functions. Purdue clustered most of the residence halls because they shared some facilities like dining courts, laundry systems and open space for fun.On the other hand, academic areas need a quite academic atmosphere tit libraries and laboratories. Considering these two different functions, it was conk out to separate residence halls and teaching buildings Just like what Purdue had done. Though we had different ideas of where to place residence halls, we had the same idea with respect to making the campus more pedestrian-oriented particularly the way from residence halls to teaching buildings. Proof. Barbarism told me his first impression of Purdue campus was that its an automobile-oriented campus. In fact, I couldnt agree more. There are not any interesting views on the street.I Just walk own the street and the only thing could stop me is the crossing. We both think the next step Purdue should consider is the design of State Street corridor. State Street is very important not only because its a very busy street but also because driving though gi ves a quick view of Purdue campus especially for drivers who Just pass by. This street might be drivers first impression of Purdue campus. The discussion was so involving that I almost muddled track of time. Finally, Proof. Barbarism told me the good news was that most of the improvements we talked about will show up in the future master plans.Purdue amps designers are trying their scoop up to improve the whole environment. He said what we should do was Just to wait and see. Thanks to Proof. Barbarism for his time to let me think about campus design with him together. I learned a lot about not only some specific terms of campus design but also some logical intellection methods to judge things like where to put residence halls. I need to take all factors into consideration and think it not only as a student but also as one of the other people who work or play on campus. We critique Purdue because we love Purdue. I am so proud to witness the growth of our Purdue campus.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Retention Management

What is Employee Retention ? Employee retention refers to the various policies and practices which permit the employees stick to an physical composition for a longer period of time. Every organization invests time and money to rail a new joinee, make him a bodied ready material and bring him at par with the existing employees. The organization is completely at button when the employees leave their job once they ar fully trained. Employee retention applys into account the various measures taken so that an individual expects in an organization for the ut close period of time.Importance of Retention Manage Employee Turnover Employers implement retention st stridegies to manage employee upset and attract quality employees into the organization. Retention programs center on on the relationship amid caution and their makeers. Competitive pay, bene flouts, employee recognition and employee assistance programs ar all apart of a guilds attempt to maintain employee contentment . Human resources specialists utilize feedback they receive from exit inter sights and focus groups to improve employee relations and reduce turnover. Cost EffectiveA company lowlife significantly benefit from employee retention programs because of a direct effect on an employers undersurface line. High turnover can be very expensive. According to the Society for Human Resources focus, employee replacement costs can pertain as high as 50 to 60 percent of an employees annual salary. St rategies ge atomic number 18d towards retaining good executeers succors offset employee replacement costs and reduces the indirect costs such as diminish productiveness and lost clients. Maintain Performance And Productivity Employee retention practices help support an organizations productiveness.Recruiting and training new employees takes time. An unfilled position operator work is non getting done. Even if a position is filled, there is still a learning curve most employees must(prenomina l) overcome beforehand their work becomes profitable. Taking the necessary steps to keep current workers satisfied with their roles volition ensure productivity is not interrupted. Enhances Recruitment Effective retention strategies oft begin during the employee recruitment process. Employees are more than than inclined to remain with a company that fulfills the promises made when their employment offer was extended.Companies that provide a realistic view of their corporate milieu, advancement opportunities and job expectations to new hires can constructively form employee retention. Increases Morale Employees that enjoy what they do and the atmosphere in which they work are more likely to remain employed with their company. Retention strategies are important because they help create a positive work environment and strengthen an employees payload to the organization. Strategies that target employee engagement, such as team-builders and community involvement, increase compa ny morale and give employees a sense of pride in what they do.The procedure of Retention Management The procedure of retention management consists of six steps5 1. Identification of the target and actual necessitate of the staff 2. abridgment of the fluctuation risk of the staff 3. The Analysis of factors of demand/Demotivation of the retention group 4. Identification of the targeted measures 5. Implementation of the measures 6. Evaluation of the measures Step 1 Identification of target and actual needs of the staff The starting point is the corporate strategy and air object lenss.The product, market or organisational goals of the company can help to identify strategic staffing needs and the strategic relevant skills of employees. Step 2 Analysis of the fluctuation risk of staff In step 2, the HR manager is interested in the degree of the fluctuation risk. First, it is important, to analyse the common portfolio of the potentials and bring to passance of the employees. In large companies, this could be done with a management audit. In small businesses this can be clarified with an employee audience. This gives the manager information about the powerfulness structure in the relevant group.But this information is not enough to estimate the probability of fluctuation. It is besides necessary to consider the demand for the relevant skills in the confinement market. When a manager combines the results of the analysis he can identify trey risk categories, which would cause a priority for the retention management * Those employees, who are in neat demand in the labor market and who have a high capacity, are the key target group for retention management measures. * Those employees, who perform wellhead and whose skills are somewhatwhat in demand in the labor market, have a mean fluctuation risk.Depending on the corporate strategy they are the second important target group for retention management measures. * Employees that have skills that exist in large numbers in the labor market and who likewise who perform well are currently not a relevant retention target. Step 3 Analysis of factors of Motivation/Demotivation of the retention group directly motivators and demotivators must be found in the identified retention target group. The motivators must be taken into account and demotivators must be re stir upd with the help of appropriate measures, to ensure that the employees develop affective commitment.Motivators and demotivators can be estimated from the outcome of questionnaires. Subsequently a Motivation/Demotivation profile of the retention target group should be formed. Step 4 Identification of the targeted measures The various measures of human resource management relate to different motivational factors. These connections can be used to create a specific matrix in which the action areas of mortalnel management and appropriate measures testament be brought together with the motivational factors. Step 5 Implementation of the measures after the analysis measures will be implemented.Here are some important aspects * Conceptual foundations The measures must be defined and applied according to clear rules, in this circumstance ad hoc measures lead only to short-term success with shun cultural impact. * Cultural fit Measures must be in accordance with the corporate subtlety and the existing Management tool system For example, a variable compensation system makes little sense without a performance appraisal system * merchandising personnel action The application of the measures must be accompanied by internal communication. Only then the efforts of a retention manager will be perceived Retention factors By the design and implementation of retention management policies respect and transparency must be taken into account. Only when these measures convey these values, they will have great influence Step 6 Evaluation of the measures After the implementation of the measures it is necessary to assess the success of the activities. This can be achieved by analyse the results to the objectives that were set in the retention management strategy. After the expiry of the defined period and after application of the retention policies the manager can check how the objectives were achieved.For example, if the objective was that 80% of the defined strategically relevant staff should be in business at time X, then the manager can determine whether this proportion was reached at time X, and whether it was exceeded or not exceeded. From this statement the manager can derive new measures and draw conclusions about the practice of the concept of retention management. big conditions for the success of retention management are on the one hand, human resource management in the company, and on the other hand project management of the implementation of retention management. Determinants of Retention CAREER DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIESCareer development is a system which is organized, formalized and its a plan ned effort of achieving a equilibrate between the individual public life needs and the organizations workforce requirements (Leiboiwitz et al, 1986). The rapidly growing awareness makes it obvious that heap can give the besotted its leading edge in the market place. The new challenge for the HR professionals is to identify the developmental strategies which can inspire the commitment of employees to the firms flush and values so that the employees become motivated and help the firm to gain and maintain a competitive advantage (Graddick, 1988).A company that wants to strengthen its bond with its employees must invest in the development of their employees (Hall amp Moss, 1998 Hsu, Jiang, Klein amp Tang, 2003 Steel et al. , 2002 Woodruffe, 1999). It entails in creating opportunities for promotion within the company and also providing opportunities for training and skill development that let employees to improve their employability on the internal and/or external labour market (But ler amp Waldrop, 2001). Growth opportunities which were offered by the employers are reduced due to turnover intentions of employees because the inadequacy of training and romotional opportunities was the main cause for high-performers to leave the company (Allen, Shore amp Griffeth, 2003 Steel et al. , 2002). Career development is important for twain the organization and individual (Hall, 2002). Its a mutual benefit process because career development provides the important outcomes for both parties (Hall, 1996 Kyriakidou and Ozbilgin, 2004). shapings need talented employees for maintaining the sustainable competitive advantage and individuals require career opportunities to develop and grow their competencies (Prince, 2005).SUPERVISOR SUPPORT One of the most important factors that have impact on retention is the relationship between a worker and a supervisor. Supervisors are the human face of an organization. According to Eisenberger and associates (1990), a workers view of the organization is strongly influenced by their relationship with their supervisor. By having support, workers are slight likely to leave an organization and be more engaged by having good relationship and open communication with the supervisor (Greenhaus, 1987).Supervisors interact as a link to practice applications among stated goals and expectations. By harmonizing the competing demands, they support in managing both inside and outside the work environment. If the relationship does not exceed then employee will seek to any other opportunity for new employment and vice versa. The supervisor support is so essential to retention that it can be verbalise that employees leave bosses, not jobs. Organization must groom supervisors to well build the place where employees want to stay.Providing each level of performance and opportunities can enhance their capabilities to work. discipline ENVIRONMENT Numerous studies have attempted to explain work environment in various areas such as for e xample employee turnover job satisfaction employee turnover, job involvement and organizational commitment. Work environment is one of the factors that affect employees decision to stay with the organization. Hytter (2008) analyzed that work environment has commonly been discussed by industrial perspective, i. e. ith a focus on physical aspects such as, heavy lifts, noise, exposure to toxic substances etc. The interesting part is characteristics of work environment start in services sector as compare to production sector because it has to interact with the clients/consumers (Normann 1986). Depending on the kind of business and kind of job, interactions will be more or less frequent and more or less intense. The interaction between employees and consumer/client hence demands a move of focus from the physical to the psychotic social dimension of work environment.Psycho social work environment admits support, work load, demands, decision latitude, var.ors etc. Its very important to recognize the emerging needs of individuals to keep them committed and provide the work environment as necessitate (Ramlall, 2003). Milory (2004) report that people enjoy working, and strive to work in those organizations that provide positive work environment where they feel they are making difference and where most people in the organization are proficient and pulling together to move the organization forward. REWARDSThe term satisfy is discussed frequently in the literature as something that the organization gives to the employees in response of their contributions and performance and also something which is desired by the employees. A reward can be extrinsic or intrinsic it can be a cash reward such as bounces or it can be recognition such as naming a worker employee of the month, and at other times a reward refers to a tangible incentive, reward is the thing that an organization gives to the employee in response of their contribution or performance so that the employees becom e motivated for future positive behavior.In a corporate environment rewards can take several forms. It includes, cash bonuses, recognition awards, free merchandise and free trips. It is very important that the rewards have a lasting impression on the employee and it will continue to substantiate the employees perception that they are valued. Rewards are very important for job satisfaction because it fulfills the basic needs as well as helps to attain the higher level of goals. Earnings is the way by which worker get to know that how much they are gaining by dedicating their time, effort and skills in a job.Attractive remuneration packages are one of the very important factors of retention because it fulfills the financial and material desires as well as provide the means of organism social by employees status and position of power in the organization. Many researchers demonstrate that there is a great deal of inter-individual difference in understanding the significance of financial rewards for employee retention. An organizations reward system can affect the performance of the employee and their desire to remain employed. WORK-LIFE POLICIESMany researchers tested the impact of work and family benefits which comprise of flexible schedules, childcare assistance, parental leave, childcare information and parental leave on organization commitment. Researches showed that there is greater organizational commitment if employees had entrance fee to work life policies and also these employees articulated considerably with lower intent to renounce their profession. Today a major concern in business is study flexibility. The one thing becomes very clear that money alone is not enough employees are willing to trade a certain amount of money for reduced work hours in their schedules.It is argued by the researchers that reduced work hour options should have the potential of win-win situation for both individuals and organizations, there should be a fit between the schedu le the person needs and the actual number of hours worked. Distress and fatigue from excessive time on job can lead to pooh-pooh in performances of the employee and also it affects the safety level. A large amount of time at work is not a good predictor of productivity and it is observe that periods of time away from work can be extremely beneficial to the quality and productivity of a persons work.The employee willingness to opt for reduced hours schedules is not simply a matter of scheduling it involves redesigning work arrangements which leads to change in organization culture and careers, viable reduced-hours career options require simultaneous changes in the areas of compensation, assignments and promotions. So it is more cost- useful and productive for management to design the work arrangements to fit the human than it is force the human to fit the system (Barnet amp Hall, 2001).By applying work-life course of actions, an organization can enhance its ability to respond to de mands of customers for better access to services and also the tactics for the organizations to deal with the revolutionized way in order to satisfy both employees and employers . ABSENTEEISM Absenteeism is a serious body of work line of work and an expensive occurrence for both employersand employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance byemployees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targetsby a department. Employee Absenteeism is the absence seizure of an employee from work.It is a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absentfrom work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads toback logs, piling of work and thus work delay. Absenteeism is of two types -1. Innocent absenteeism Is one in which the employee is absent from workdue to genuine cause or reason. It may be due to his illness or personalfamily problem or any other real reason2. Culpable Absenteeism is one in which a person is absent from workwithout any genuine reason or cause. He may be pretending to be ill or justwanted a holiday and stay at home.Many employees will, on occasions, need a few days off work because of illness, however, whenabsences become more frequent or long term and reach an unacceptable level, action bymanagement is necessary. Absence from work can be expensive in both monetary and humanterms. The costs incurred when an employee is absent from work may include(i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence(ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives(iii) Low morale and everyday dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the absence isHigh absenteeism in the workplace may be indicative of curt morale, but absences can also be caused by workplace hazards or sick building syndrome. Many employers use statistics such as the Bradford factor that do not distinguish between genuine illness and absen ce for inappropriate reasons. As a result, many employees feel obliged to come to work while ill, and transmit communicable diseases to their co-workers. This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers who try to work while ill.Work forces often excuse absenteeism caused by medical reasons if the worker supplies a doctors note or other form of documentation. Sometimes, people choose not to show up for work and do not call in advance, which businesses may find to be unprofessional and inconsiderate. This is called a no call, no show. According to Nelson & Quick (2008) people who are dissatisfied with their jobs are absent more frequently. They went on to say that the type of dissatisfaction that most often leads employees to miss work is dissatisfaction with the work itself.The psychological model that discusses this is the withdrawal model, which assumes that absenteeism represents individual withdrawal from dissatisfying working conditions. Th is finds empirical support in a negative association between absence and job satisfaction, especially satisfaction with the work itself. 1 Medical-based understanding of absenteeism find support in research that links absenteeism with smoking, problem drinking, low back pain, and migraines. 2 Absence ascribed to medical causes is often still, at least in part, voluntary.Research shows that over one trillion dollars is lost annually due to productivity shortages as a result of medical-related absenteeism, and that increased focus on preventative wellness could reduce these costs. 3 The line between psychological and medical causation is blurry, condition that there are positive links between both work stress and depression and absenteeism. 2 Depressive tendencies may lie behind some of the absence ascribed to poor physical health, as with adoption of a culturally approved sick role.This places the adjective sickness before the word absence, and carries a cargo of more proof than is usually offered. Evidence indicates that absence is publicly viewed as mildly deviant workplace behavior. For example, people tend to hold negative stereotypes of absentees, under report their own absenteeism, and believe their own attendance record is better than that of their peers. Negative attributions about absence then bring about three outcomes the behavior is open to social control, sensitive to social context, and is a potential source of workplace conflict.Thomas suggests that there tends to be a higher level of stress with people who work with or interact with a narcissist, which in turn increases absenteeism and staff turnover TURNOVER Employee turnover is the process of replacing one worker with another for any reason. A turnover rate is the percentage of employees that a company must replace within a given time period. This rate is a concern to most companies because employee turnover can be a costly expense, especially for lower-paying jobs, which typically have the highest turnover rates. Having n employee leave a company, either because of his or her choice or after being fired or otherwise let go, might require various administrative tasks to be performed and severance pay or other payments made to the employee. Replacing the employee might require such things as advertising the open position, using a so-called headhunter or other service to find potential job candidates, bringing in candidates for interviews and eventually training the new employee. Types Of Turnover The two general types of turnover are voluntary and involuntary.Voluntary turnover is when the employee chooses to leave for whatever reason. Involuntary turnover is caused by layoffs and similar actions where the decision for an employee to leave is made by the company and not the employee. As a general rule, voluntary turnover is the measure used to discuss and compare employers. It is the type most directly affected by the front line supervisors. Involuntary turnover, cause d by layoffs, can be a long-term result of high levels of voluntary turnover. What Is Turnover RateTurnover rate is a tally of the number of employees who have left the company and it is expressed as a percentage of the total number of employees. Although turnover rate is usually calculated and reported as a percentage per year it can be for different periods. How to prevent turnover Employees are important in any running of a business without them the business would be unsuccessful. However, more and more employers today are finding that employees remain for approximately 23 to 24 months, according to the 2006 Bureau of grind Statistics.The Employment Policy Foundation states that it costs a company an average of $15,000per employee, which includes separation costs, including paperwork, unemployment vacancy costs, including overtime or temporary employees and replacement costs including advertisement, interview time, relocation, training, and decreased productivity when colleague s depart. Providing a stimulating workplace environment, which fosters happy, motivated and empowered individuals, lowers employee turnover and absentee rates. 10 Promoting a work environment that fosters personal and professional growth promotes concord and encouragement on all levels, so the effects are felt company wide. 10 Continual training and reinforcement develops a work force that is competent, consistent, competitive, effective and efficient. 10 Beginning on the first day of work, providing the individual with the necessary skills to perform their job is important. 11Before the first day, it is important the interview and hiring process expose new hires to an commentary of the company, so individuals know whether the job is their best choice. 12 Networking and strategizing within the company provides ongoing performance management and helps build relationships among co-workers. 12 It is also important to motivate employees to focus on customer success, profitable growth and the company well-being . 12 Employers can keep their employees informed and involved by including them in future plans, new purchases, policy changes, as well as introducing new employees to the employees who have gone above and beyond in meetings. 12 Early engagement and engagement along the way, shows employees they are valuable through information or recognition rewards, making them feel included. 12 When companies hire the best people, new talent hired and veterans are enabled to reach company goals, maximizing the investiture of each employee. 12 Taking the time to listen to employees and making them feel involved will create loyalty, in turn reducing turnover allowing for growth. ATTRITION rubbing or Employee Attrition is a voluntary reduction in an organizations manpower through resignations or retirements. A high attrition rate causes a high employee turnover in an organization, reducing quantity and quality of an organizations manpower.This in turn causes a huge expen diture on human resource, by contributing towards repeated acquisition, training and development, and performance management. Attrition or voluntary turnover, although undesirable to any firm, is not completely avoidable. Yet, by up(a) employee morale and providing a satisfactory working environment, this problem can be nullified to a greater extent. A major cause for voluntary turnover is uninteresting and unchallenging job that offers boredom rather than enthusiasm for employees. Employees who experience boredom at work usually try exploring alternatives to make their work life happier.An smooth track to retain these employees is by adopting some sort of job shift through job enrichment, empowerment, de-jobbing, or job rotation. There is also a great impact from the working environment that an organization offers to its employees. An unhappy employee with organizational culture, superiors, subordinates, or even customers cause high attrition rate to that organization. These empl oyees can also influence his peers and subordinates by sharing their feelings and opinion. There is also another group of employees who hunt for better alternatives and hop as they get one.These employees may rather spend their volume of working hours in searching new options than contributing to the present employer. This means, behaviour and attitude of an employee also can cause attrition. Why do Employees consecrate the Organization? It is said that people leave their bosses,not organizations. When employees are happy with their superiors they choose to stay, if not they look for a switch. So now I see the following reasons to Leave the Boss * Higher pay * Work timings * Career growth * Higher education * Relocation to other places Women leave the job after marriage to take up their house-hold duties * Work pressure * Work Environment * Poor performance. * Losing faith on merger/acquisition * Verbal abuse The Brighter Side of Attrition * A poor performer is replaced by a more effective employee * A senior retirement allows the promotion or acquisition of welcome fresh blood. * When business is slack it is straight forward to hold off filling recently created vacancies for some weeks. Diagnosing Attrition Commonly Used Techniques in the Industry 1. Surveys They are commonly used as part of the information gathering process.They are a reasonable way of obtaining relevant information, though response rates are often disappointing. Questionnaires need to be designed carefully to be effective. They should be easy to use, anonymous and fairly brief. Questions can be open or closed, aggregate choice answers, ranking of items or checklist format. 2. Exit Interviews Exit interviews are used by the majority of companies. They tend to be conducted just before an employee leaves, though some firms wait until after the departure. Exit interviews will normally to be done in the form of a questionnaire, though one to one interviews are also used.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Siddhartha

Many novels and other pieces of literature, contain a principal(prenominal) character that has difficulty finding happiness and solutions to their problems. In Siddhartha, the main character Siddhartha, is born into his fathers social class but finds himself not pleased with his religion nor happiness, so he goes on a journey hoping to find pull within himself. Like Siddhartha the main character in the Razors Edge, Larry Darnell questions his religion, and everyday decisions. Both Larry Darnell and Siddhartha break come to from their original society to go on expeditions in wish to find answers to their unanswered concerns, and to find erudition. Both characters willingly give up things in order to reach their goal.Siddhartha set outs his father and his fathers power in their community. Siddharthas father, a Brahmin leader, has much power which makes him able to provide for Siddhartha well. Siddhartha does not the like the ways his father is living and is dissatisfied with his fathers religious beliefs because he sees that his father and his followers are not reaching enlightenment so he feels that it would not make sense to follow a method that obviously is not working. He and his best friend, Govinda, decide to commence on a journey to find a way of life that is agreeable to them. Making the decision to leave his family and home mustiness cave in been a very hard choice to make for such a young human beings to make.Later on in the book, Siddhartha leaves even more of his lovemakingd ones behind in his exploration for enlightenment. He departs from his friend Govinda when Govinda feels that he is content with the samanas and their teachings and Siddhartha feels that he must experience life for his own in order to find inner happiness. Govinda is Siddharthas best friend and was with him through the toughest of cartridge clips. Siddhartha loves Govinda, but knows that it was in the best evoke of both of them to part ways. Additionally, Siddhartha f eels the need to let his only squirt, whom he loves dearly, to go off on his own and experience lifes qualities for himself just like how Siddhartha did during his own childhood.Although he knows it is the right thing to do, Siddhartha feels a natural love towards his newly discovered male child and is dreadfully heartbroken by his absence. Likewise, Larry Darrell willingly gives up a lot of things for his hunt towards world knowledge and inner happiness. Larry gives up Isabel, the woman hes known and loved since he was a child with no parents, because she wanted a life of luxury and wealth. Larry did not want that because he wanted to live a modest life where he lives off of the rush that comes with learning and living freely and not trapped in a life full of materialism and capital gain. He believes that money is not necessary and even goes to the extent of declining a lavish job offer from his best friends father.He would have been one of Mr. Maturins job brokers and he would have been practically guaranteed huge sums of money and would have been able to support Isabel to the standard of living that she is used to. Also, Larry gives up his friend Yosti to focus on his goal. He and Yosti become great friends when they room together at the mines and go looking for farm work together. Larry feels that it is his time to move on and abandons Yosti at a farm. Though in the end it paid off, both characters willingly gave up things in order to reach enlightenment. Both characters gain knowledge small-arm on their quest. Siddhartha learns a lot from his young son. His son taught him about the true inwardness of love. Siddhartha started out on his journey with the thought that you do not need to love everything because some things just are not lovable.His son taught him that you must love everything and yourself to respect the world and everything inside of it. Siddhartha feels a natural love toward his son and was utterly heartbroken when the time came when he had to let his son go. His son is not the only person that affected him, for the river likewise had quite an impact on Siddhartha. The river showed him that time does not really exist and that everything always comes back around. Siddhartha is relieved by this estimate because the stresses that time brings are now suddenly lifted off from him. The idea that everything comes back around is paralleled to Siddharthas life because he left his father to go and explore life on his own and now his own son does the same.Siddhartha also learns the difference between knowledge and wisdom and the difference between seeking and finding. He comes to the conclusion at the end of the novel that Knowledge can buoy be communicated, but not wisdom (Hesse 142) and that Seeking means to have a goal but finding means to be free, to be receptive, to have no goal (Hesse 140). Correspondingly, Larry is affected by people as well. He meets a yogi and brings him questions about god and evil. The yogi tea ches him about the Hindu religion and explains to Larry that evil is as a direct a manifestation of the divine as the good (Maugham 114). Larry is greatly affected by the yogi and takes the information that the yogi shared with him for the rest of his journey.He is also influenced by reading books. He gains worldly knowledge from reading and uses it to his advantage. He reads about all kinds of philosophies and ideas that bring him to question religion and God. Larry also learns from experiences. He decides to leave his friends in Chicago and live in Paris to simply clear his mind and get his thoughts straight. He also goes to work in a coal mine, a job of which many people would despise having, just to see what its like to have some manual labor under his belt. closely people would think he is crazy (Maugham 46) for doing unnecessary hard labor like Larry does, but that doesnt seem to bother him. He later went on a 5 year expedition starting in a monastery in Germany and ending w ith a Hindu yogi in India where he lived with calmness, forbearance, compassion, selflessness, and continence (Maugham 279).This makes him decide to barf Christianity and makes him very open to Hindu beliefs. Larry also learns a lot from his time served in World War I. He was a pilot and him and his best friend, Patsy, got into a dogfight in the air and Patsy literally took a bullet for Larry and died. This event is truly when Larry begins to question religion and God. Overall, Larry and Siddhartha are greatly influenced by others while going through his journey and learn a lot on the way. Siddhartha and Larry have great effects on other people on their way of life to enlightenment. They never seem to shy away from sharing their knowledge with those who will listen. Siddhartha influences his longtime friend Govinda by explaining to him all that he has learned on his voyage.He tells Govinda the meaning and importance of love, seeking and wisdom. When Siddhartha goes in depth about love he describes how a person must love themselves in order to be grateful for anything else that exists in the world. Siddhartha picks up a rock acknowledging how he loves this rock it is a stone, because today and now it appears to me a stone. I see value and meaning in each of its fine mark ings and cavities in the yellow in the gray in the hardness and the sound of it (Hesse 145). This lesson has a huge impact for Govinda, and he bowes low. Incontrollable tears trickle down his old face (Hesse 151). Govinda is truly inspired by the teachings and his knowledge about the world. Govinda is just one of the people that he influenced. Siddhartha has an effect on his friend Kamala. Kamala is a very materialistic person and Siddhartha opens her eyes to the idea that material goods are not the most important things in life.She is inspired by this thought and takes a page from his book to further her learning. She then becomes pregnant with Siddharthas son and raises him under Buddhist beliefs and eventually dies in an attempt to travelling to meet Buddha himself. In general, Siddhartha has a positive effect on people that he has encountered with along his journey. Equally, Larry has positive effects on several people along his journey. Larry affects Isabel when she sabotages her own plan to make Larry think that she was pregnant. She thinks of him as being too innocent and sweet to do anything menacing to him. He also makes her question her wedding ceremony with Gray because she still loves Larry. Furthermore, Larry makes a strong attempt to change Sophie. After her husband and childs sudden death, Sophie turns to drugs and alcohol to ease her pain.Larry puts Sophies problems on his back and garters rehabilitate her and even asked for her hand in marriage. She accepts his proposal but then relapses and goes back to her bad habits. Although he ultimately failed, Larry still put in a great effort in helping Sophie. Larry also affects Suzanne by taking her off of the streets and taking care of her when she needed it the most. Larry finds her and feels that he is obligated to help her so he briefly gives her and her young daughter a home to live in, money and accompanies them through all of this to ensure that they are all right. Larry gives Suzanne intrust and the two of them become very close, close enough that Larry tells her about his scarring experiences in World War I.Towards the end of their relationship they have sex and then the following(a) morning Larry decides that Suzanne is ready to get back on her feet and leaves her with money and good people to surround herself with. He leaves her with a pleasing life which she greatly appreciates. As a whole, Larry and Siddhartha are influential in many peoples lives and truly become teachers. People reach enlightenment in different ways. Siddhartha reaches enlightenment by experiencing all aspects of life and being very open minded so he is not a seeker and is a finder. Larry Darrell rea ches enlightenment by reading, loafing, helping others, questioning religion, and keeping his personal space. Both characters learn, teach, and sacrifice during their journey towards happiness and both characters evidently reach their goal in the end.

Chapter 2 Aunt Marge’s Big Mistake

annoy went surmount to breakfast the next morning to find the three Dursleys already flummoxting around the kitchen table. They were watching a bran-new television, a wel watch over-home-for-the- summer present for Dudley, who had been quetch loudly approximately the long walk between the fridge and the television in the living room. Dudley had spent most of the summer in the kitchen, his piggy little eyes fixed on the screen and his five chins wobbling as he ate continu onlyy. plague sat down between Dudley and Uncle Vernon, a large, beefy man with really little neck and a lot of mustache. Far from wishing Harry a happy birthday, none of the Dursleys made any sign that they had noticed Harry enter the room, only Harry was far too used to this to c ar. He helped himself to a piece of heat and then looked up at the reporter on the television, who was halfway through a report on an get away(p) convict.the public is warned that Black is armed and passing dangerous. A special hot greenback has been set up, and any sighting of Black should be reported immediately.No need to tell us hes no good, snorted Uncle Vernon, staring over the top of his newspaper at the prisoner. Look at the state of him, the filthy layab let out Look at his hairHe surmisal a nasty look sideways at Harry, whose untidy hair had always been a source of nifty annoyance to Uncle Vernon. Compared to the man on the television, however, whose lean face was surrounded by a matted, elbow-length tangle, Harry felt very well groomed indeed.The reporter had reappeared.The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries will announce today settle on barked Uncle Vernon, staring furiously at the reporter. You didnt tell us where that maniacs escaped from What use is that? Lunatic could be coming up the street right without delayaunt genus genus Petunia, who was bony and horse-faced, whipped around and peered intently out of the kitchen hustleow. Harry knew aunty Petunia would simply love to be th e one to call the hot line number. She was the nosiest woman in the world and spent most of her life spying on the boring, law-abiding neighbors.When will they learn, express Uncle Vernon, pounding the table with his large color fist, that hangings the only way to deal with these people?Very true, said auntie Petunia, who was still squinting into next doors runner-beans.Uncle Vernon drained his teacup, glanced at his watch, and added, Id better be shoot in a minute, Petunia. Marges train gets in at ten.Harry, whose thoughts had been upstairs with the Broomstick Servicing Kit, was brought back to earth with an unpleasant bump. aunty Marge? he blurted out. Sh-shes not coming here, is she?Aunt Marge was Uncle Vernons sister. Even though she was not a blood relative of Harrys (whose mother had been Aunt Petunias sister), he had been forced to call her Aunt all his life. Aunt Marge lived in the country, in a house with a large garden, where she bred bulldogs. She didnt often stay at Privet Drive, because she couldnt bear to leave her precious dogs, further each of her ensures stood out horribly vividly in Harrys mind.At Dudleys fifth birthday party, Aunt Margo had whacked Harry around the shins with her walking stick to split up him from beating Dudley at musical statues. A few years later, she had turned up at Christmas with a com redacterized robot for Dudley and a box of dog biscuits for Harry. On her last visit, the year before Harry started at Hogwarts, Harry had accidentally trodden on the tail of her favorite dog. Ripper had chased Harry out into the garden and up a tree, and Aunt Marge had refused to call him off until past midnight. The memory of this incident still brought tears of laughter to Dudleys eyes.Margell be here for a week, Uncle Vernon snarled, and magic spell were on the subject, he pointed a fat finger threateningly at Harry, we need to get a few things straight before I go and collect her.Dudley smirked and withdrew his gaze from the television. Watching Harry being bullied by Uncle Vernon was Dudleys favorite dust of entertainment.Firstly, growled Uncle Vernon, youll keep a civil tongue in your head when youre lecture to Marge.All right, said Harry bitterly, if she does when shes talking to me.Secondly, said Uncle Vernon, acting as though he had not heard Harrys reply, as Marge doesnt know anything close to your abnormality, I dont want any any funny stuff while shes here. You be piddle yourself, got me?I will if she does, said Harry through gritted odontiasis.And thirdly, said Uncle Vernon, his lowly little eyes now slits in his great purple face, weve told Marge you attend St. Brutuss Secure Center for Incurably Criminal Boys.What? Harry yelled.And youll be sticky to that story, boy, or therell be trouble, spat Uncle Vernon.Harry sat there, white-faced and furious, staring at Uncle Vernon, hardly able to believe it. Aunt Marge coming for a weeklong visit it was the worst birthday present the Dursley s had ever given him, including that pair of Uncle Vernons old socks.Well, Petunia, said Uncle Vernon, getting heavily to his feet, Ill be off to the station, then. Want to keep up along for the ride, Dudders?No, said Dudley, whose attention had returned to the television now that Uncle Vernon had finished threatening Harry.Duddys got to make himself smart for his auntie, said Aunt Petunia, smoothing Dudleys thick blond hair. Mummys bought him a engaging new bow-tie.Uncle Vernon clapped Dudley on his porky shoulder.See you in a bit, then, he said, and he left the kitchen.Harry, who had been sitting in a kind of horrified trance, had a explosive idea. Abandoning his toast, he got quickly to his feet and followed Uncle Vernon to the front door.Uncle Vernon was pulling on his car coat.Im not pickings you, he snarled as he turned to see Harry watching him.Like I wanted to come, said Harry coldly. I want to ask you just aboutthing.Uncle Vernon eyed him suspiciously.Third years at Hog at my school are allowed to visit the village sometimes, said Harry.So? snapped Uncle Vernon, taking his car keys from a hook next to the door.I need you to sign the liberty form, said Harry in a rush.And why should I do that? sneered Uncle Vernon.Well, said Harry, choosing his words carefully, itll be hard work, pretending to Aunt Marge I go to that St. Whatsits.St. Brutuss Secure Center for Incurably Criminal Boys bellowed Uncle Vernon, and Harry was pleased to hear a definite note of panic in Uncle Vernons voice.Exactly, said Harry, facial expression calmly up into Uncle Vernons large, purple face. Its a lot to remember. Ill have to make it sound convincing, wont I? What if I accidentally let something slip?Youll get the bandaging knocked out of you, wont you? roared Uncle Vernon, advancing on Harry with his fist raised. But Harry stood his ground.Knocking the stuffing out of me wont make Aunt Marge forget what I could tell her, he said grimly.Uncle Vernon stopped, his fist s till raised, his face an ugly puce.But if you sign my permission form, Harry went on quickly, I swear delirious remember where Im supposed to go to school, and Ill act like a Mug like Im normal and everything.Harry could tell that Uncle Vernon was thinking it over, even if his teeth were bared and a vein was throbbing in his temple.Right, he snapped last-placely. I shall monitor your behavior carefully during Marges visit. If, at the end of it, youve toed the line and unplowed to the story, Ill sign your ruddy form.He wheeled around, pulled open the front door, and slammed it so hard that one of the little panes of glass at the top cut back out.Harry didnt return to the kitchen. He went back upstairs to his bedroom. If he was going to act like a real Muggle, heed better start now. slowly and sadly he gathered up all his presents and his birthday cards and hid them infra the loose floorboard with his homework. Then he went to Hedwigs cage. Errol seemed to have recovered he and H edwig were two asleep, heads to a lower place their wings. Harry sighed, then poked them both awake.Hedwig, he said gloomily, youre going to have to clear off for a week. Go with Errol. Ronll look afterwardsward you. Ill write him a note, explaining. And dont look at me like that Hedwigs large amber eyes were reproachful its not my fault. Its the only way Ill be allowed to visit Hogsmeade with Ron and Hermione.Ten minutes later, Errol and Hedwig (who had a note to Ron bound to her leg) soared out of the window and out of sight. Harry, now notion thoroughly miserable, put the empty cage away(p) inside the wardrobe.But Harry didnt have long to brood. In next to no time, Aunt Petunia was shrieking up the stairs for Harry to come down and get ready to welcome their guest.Do something about your hair Aunt Petunia snapped as he reached the hall.Harry couldnt see the point of assay to make his hair lie flat. Aunt Marge loved criticizing him, so the untidier he looked, the happier she would be.All too soon, there was a crunch of gravel extracurricular as Uncle Vernons car pulled back into the driveway, then the clunk of the car doors and footsteps on the garden path.Get the door Aunt Petunia hissed at Harry.A feeling of great gloom in his stomach, Harry pulled the door open.On the threshold stood Aunt Marge. She was very like Uncle Vernon large, beefy, and purple-faced, she even had a mustache, though not as bushy as his. In one hand she held an enormous suitcase, and tucked under the other was an old and evil-tempered bulldog.Wheres my Dudders? roared Aunt Marge. Wheres my neffy poo?Dudley came waddling down the hall, his blond hair affluent flat to his fat head, a bow tie just visible under his many chins. Aunt Marge thrust the suitcase into Harrys stomach, knocking the wind out of him, seized Dudley in a tight one-armed hug, and planted a large kiss on his cheek.Harry knew perfectly well that Dudley only put up with Aunt Marges hugs because he was well p aid for it, and sure enough, when they broke apart, Dudley had a crisp twenty-pound note clutched in his fat fist.Petunia shouted Aunt Marge, striding past Harry as though he was a hat-stand. Aunt Marge and Aunt Petunia kissed, or or else, Aunt Marge bumped her large confer against Aunt Petunias bony cheekbone.Uncle Vernon now came in, smiling jovially as he shut the door.Tea, Marge? he said. And what will Ripper take?Ripper derriere have some tea out of my saucer, said Aunt Marge as they all proceeded into the kitchen, leaving Harry alone in the hall with the suitcase. But Harry wasnt complaining any excuse not to be with Aunt Marge was fine by him, so he began to heave the case upstairs into the spare bedroom, taking as long as he could. By the time he got back to the kitchen, Aunt Marge had been supplied with tea and fruitcake, and Ripper was lapping noisily in the corner. Harry saw Aunt Petunia wince slightly as specks of tea and drool flecked her clean floor. Aunt Petunia ha ted animals.Whos looking after the other dogs, Marge? Uncle Vernon asked.Oh, Ive got Colonel Fubster managing them, boomed Aunt Marge. Hes retired now, good for him to have something to do. But I couldnt leave poor old Ripper. He pines if hes away from me.Ripper began to growl again as Harry sat down. This directed Aunt Marges attention to Harry for the first time.So she barked. Still here, are you?Yes, said Harry.Dont you say yes in that ungratifying tone, Aunt Marge growled. Its damn good of Vernon and Petunia to keep you. Wouldnt have done it myself. Youd have gone straight to an orphanage if youd been dumped on my doorstep.Harry was bursting to say that hed rather live in an orphanage than with the Dursleys, but the thought of the Hogsmeade form stopped him. He forced his face into a painful smile.Dont you smirk at me boomed Aunt Marge. I can see you havent improved since I last saw you. I hoped school would knock some manners into you. She took a large selective service of te a, wiped her mustache, and said, Where is it that you send him, again, Vernon?St. Brutuss, said Uncle Vernon promptly. Its a first-rate institution for hopeless cases.I see, said Aunt Marge. Do they use the cane at St. Brutuss, boy? she barked across the table.Er Uncle Vernon nodded curtly laughingstock Aunt Marges back.Yes, said Harry. Then, feeling he might as well do the thing properly, he added, All the time.Excellent, said Aunt Marge. I wont have this namby-pamby, wishy-washy nonsense about not hitting people who deserve it. A good thrashing is whats needed in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. Have you been beaten often?Oh, yeah, said Harry, loads of times.Aunt Marge narrowed her eyes.I still dont like your tone, boy, she said. If you can speak of your beatings in that casual way, they clearly arent hitting you hard enough. Petunia, Id write if I were you. Make it clear that you approve the use of extreme force in this boys case.Perhaps Uncle Vernon was worried that Harry m ight forget their bargain in any case, he changed the subject abruptly.Heard the news this morning, Marge? What about that escaped prisoner, eh?******As Aunt Marge started to make herself at home, Harry caught himself thinking closely longingly of life at number four without her. Uncle Vernon and Aunt Petunia usually encouraged Harry to stay out of their way, which Harry was only too happy to do. Aunt Marge, on the other hand, wanted Harry under her eye at all times, so that she could boom out suggestions for his improvement. She delighted in comparing Harry with Dudley, and took huge pleasure in buying Dudley dearly-won presents while glaring at Harry, as though daring him to ask why he hadnt got a present too. She also kept throwing out darkened hints about what made Harry such an unsatisfactory person.You mustnt blame yourself for the way the boys turned out, Vernon, she said over lunch on the third day. If theres something rotten on the inside, theres nothing anyone can do ab out it.Harry tried to concentrate on his food, but his hands shook and his face was starting to burn with anger. immortalise the form, he told himself. Think about Hogsmeade. Dont say anything. Dont rise Aunt Marge reached for her glass of wine.Its one of the basic rules of breeding, she said. You see it all the time with dogs. If theres something wrong with the bitch, therell be something wrong with the pup At that moment, the wineglass Aunt Marge was holding exploded in her hand. Shards of glass flew in every direction and Aunt Marge sputtered and blinked, her great ruddy face dripping.Marge squealed Aunt Petunia. Marge, are you all right?Not to worry, grunted Aunt Marge, mopping her face with her napkin. Must have squeezed it too hard. Did the very(prenominal) thing at Colonel Fubsters the other day. No need to fuss, Petunia, I have a very firm grip.But Aunt Petunia and Uncle Vernon were both looking at Harry suspiciously, so he decided hed better skip dessert and escape from t he table as soon as he could.Outside in the hall, he leaned against the wall, breathing deeply. It had been a long time since hed lost control and made something explode. He couldnt afford to let it happen again. The Hogsmeade form wasnt the only thing at stake if he carried on like that, hed be in trouble with the Ministry of Magic.Harry was still an underage wizard, and he was veto by wizard law to do magic outside school. His record wasnt exactly clean either. Only last summer hed gotten an official warning that had say quite clearly that if the Ministry got wind of any more magic in Privet Drive, Harry would face expulsion from Hogwarts.He heard the Dursleys leaving the table and go upstairs out of the way.******Harry got through the next three days by forcing himself to think about his Handbook of Do-It-Yourself Broomcare whenever Aunt Marge started on him. This worked quite well, though it seemed to give him a glazed look, because Aunt Marge started voicing the opinion tha t he was mentally subnormal.At last, at long last, the final evening of Marges stay arrived. Aunt Petunia cooked a fancy dinner and Uncle Vernon uncorked several bottles of wine. They got all the way through the soup and the salmon without a virtuoso mention of Harrys faults during the lemon meringue pie, Uncle Vernon bored them a with a long talk about Grunnings, his drill-making company then Aunt Petunia made coffee tree and Uncle Vernon brought out a bottle of brandy.Can I tempt you, Marge?Aunt Marge had already had quite a lot of wine. Her huge face was very red.Just a small one, then, she chuckled. A bit more than thatand a bit morethats the ticket.Dudley was eating his fourth slice of pie. Aunt Petunia was sipping coffee with her little finger sticking out. Harry really wanted to disappear into his bedroom, but he met Uncle Vernons angry little eyes and knew he would have to sit it out.Aah, said Aunt Marge, smacking her lips and putting the empty brandy glass back down. Exce llent nosh, Petunia. Its normally just a fry-up for me of an evening, with twelve dogs to look after She burped lavishly and patted her great washrag stomach. Pardon me. But I do like to see a healthy-sized boy, she went on, winking at Dudley. Youll be a proper-sized man, Dudders, like your father. Yes, Ill have a spot more brandy, VernonNow, this one here She jerked her head at Harry, who felt his stomach clench. The Handbook, he thought quickly.This ones got a mean, runty look about him. You get that with dogs. I had Colonel Fubster drown one last year. Ratty little thing it was. Weak. Underbred.Harry was trying to remember page twelve of his book A Charm to Cure Reluctant Reversers.It all comes down to blood, as I was saying the other day. Bad blood will out. Now, Im saying nothing against your family, Petunia she patted Aunt Petunias bony hand with her shovel-like one but your sister was a bad egg. They turn up in the best families. Then she ran off with a wastrel and heres th e result right in front of us.Harry was staring at his plate, a funny ringing in his ears. Grasp your broom steadfastly by the tail, he thought. But he couldnt remember what came next. Aunt Marges voice seemed to be boring into him like one of Uncle Vernons drills.This Potter, said Aunt Marge loudly, take the brandy bottle and splashing more into her glass and over the tablecloth, you never told me what he did?Uncle Vernon and Aunt Petunia were looking extremely tense. Dudley had even looked up from his pie to gape at his parents.He didnt work, said Uncle Vernon, with half a glance at Harry. Unemployed.As I expected said Aunt Marge, taking a huge pad of brandy and wiping her chin on her sleeve. A no-account, good-for-nothing, lazy scrounger who He was not, said Harry suddenly. The table went very quiet. Harry was shaking all over. He had never felt so angry in his life.MORE BRANDY yelled Uncle Vernon, who had gone very white. He emptied the bottle into Aunt Marges glass. You, bo y, he snarled at Harry. Go to bed, go on No, Vernon, hiccuped Aunt Marge, holding up a hand, her tiny bloodshot eyes fixed on Harrys. Go on, boy, go on. Proud of your parents, are you? They go and get themselves killed in a car crash (drunk, I expect) They didnt die in a car crash said Harry, who found himself on his feet.They died in a car crash, you nasty little liar, and left you to be a burden on their decent, hardworking relatives screamed Aunt Marge, swelling with fury. You are an insolent, ungrateful little But Aunt Marge suddenly stopped speaking. For a moment, it looked as though words had failed her. She seemed to be swelling with inexpressible anger but the swelling didnt stop. Her great red face started to expand, her tiny eyes bulged, and her mouth stretched too tightly for speech next second, several buttons had just burst from her tweed jacket and pinged off the walls she was inflating like a monstrous balloon, her stomach bursting free of her tweed waistband, each of her fingers blowing up like a salamiMARGE yelled Uncle Vernon and Aunt Petunia together as Aunt Marges whole body began to rise off her chair toward the ceiling. She was entirely round, now, like a vast life float with piggy eyes, and her hands and feet stuck out weirdly as she drifted up into the air, making apoplectic popping noises. Ripper came skidding into the room, barking madly.NOOOOOOOUncle Vernon seized one of Marges feet and tried to pull her down again, but was almost lifted from the floor himself. A second later, Ripper leapt forward and sank his teeth into Uncle Vernons leg.Harry tore from the eat room before anyone could stop him, heading for the cupboard under the stairs. The cupboard door burst magically open as he reached it. In seconds, he had heaved his trunk to the front door. He sprinted upstairs and threw himself under the bed, racking up the loose floorboard, and grabbed the pillowcase full of his books and birthday presents. He wriggled out, seized Hedw igs empty cage, and dashed back downstairs to his trunk, just as Uncle Vernon burst out of the dining room, his trouser leg in bloody tatters.COME BACK IN HERE he bellowed. COME BACK AND PUT HER RIGHTBut a reckless rage had come over Harry. He kicked his trunk open, pulled out his wand, and pointed it at Uncle Vernon.She deserved it, Harry said, breathing very fast. She deserved what she got. You keep away from me.He fumbled behind him for the latch on the door.Im going, Harry said. Ive had enough.And in the next moment, he was out in the dark, quiet street, heaving his heavy trunk behind him, Hedwigs cage under his arm.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Radiation Heat Transfer Lab

The objective of this research laboratoryoratory look into is to investigate the light beam rectitudes (Lamberts blank, cos lettuce police force and Stefan-Boltzmann fairness) using thermal and optical radiation.This look into was carried out with the assistance of the Thermal Radiation Apparatus which consists of a heat cite (that supplys the heat for the verification of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law), a thermopile (that assists in detecting the temperature), a luxmeter (that assists in bar the luminous intensity for the verification of Lamberts keep & romaine Law), absorption plates that detect any gleam hazard upon them, a swivelling light ancestry (that assists in provides luminous radiation for the verification of Lamberts Cosine Law) and finally cadence amplifier that detects he amount of irradiance incident upon the measuring rod plates and provides an electronic output in the form of a reading.Lamberts Distance Law states the as the breakup distance surrounded b y the point source of radiation and the detector plates is increased, the irradiance notice leave behind decrease. This law was proved to be precise since the irradiance and the distance have a negative toss of -1.584 on Figure 1.Lamberts Cosine Law, which constitutes that the radiant intensity, I, of the radiation emitted by a flat source is analogous from any direction but the irradiance, E, decreases with the increase of cosine of the angle of incidence. This law was also proved to be accurate as it can be seen from elude 2 that as the angle of incidence increased, the irradiance decreased.The Stefan-Boltzmann Law was also verified. It was observed that the irradiance of a blackbody was proportionate to the fourth business collide withice of the absolute temperature.The main source erroneousness in the lab examine was that the laboratory room was not tout ensemble dark and caused the measuring plates to detect ambient light radiation and giving untrue readings.PROCEDURE The procedure outlaid in the lab manual was followed to precision. The procedure steps were carried out in a safe manner for Lamberts Distance Law, Lamberts Cosine Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law. 2RESULTSLamberts Distance LawPlease interrelate to Table 1, Figure 1 and Figure 2 in Appendix A Tables and Figures for the Results of the experiment conducted to observe Lamberts Distance Law.Lamberts Cosine LawPlease refer to Table 2, Table 3, Figure 3 and Figure 4 in Appendix A Tables and Figures for the Results of the experiment conducted to observe Lamberts Cosine Law.Stefan-Boltzmann LawPlease refer to Table 4, Table 5 and Figure 5 in Appendix A Tables and Figures for the Results of the experiment conducted to observe Stefan-Boltzmann Law.DISCUSSIONLamberts Distance LawTheoretically it is believed that Lamberts Distance Law correlates to the detail that the irradiance of the radiation emitted perpendicularly towards a locate from a point source is inversely proportional to the squ are of the distance separating the illuminated surface and the source. 2 From the experiment it was observed that as the distance between the illuminated surface and the source of radiation increased, the irradiance decreased as an individual can notice that at a separation distance of 100 mm the irradiance was observed to be 1069 W/m2 and at the separation distance of 800 mm the irradiance reduced to a 126 W/m2. From Figure 1 (Lamberts Distance Law plot on a Log-Log scale) and Figure 2 (Lamberts Distance Law plotted on a frequent scale), it can be discerned that the irradiance diminishes as the separation distance between the source of radiation and the illumination surface increases.Lamberts Cosine LawLamberts Cosine Law states that the radiant intensity, I, emitted by a flat source is the analogous from any direction, however the irradiance, E, decreases with the cosine of the angle of direction. 2 This law essentially dictates that the direction of illuminance is irrelevant si nce the radiance from the surface at any angle is exactly the same to the human eye this happens due to the fact that as the angle of direction of the rays increases relative to the normal (0 angle of direction), the area of incidence for the radiation decreases. another(prenominal) theoretical observation that can be made from the law stated above is that the maximum irradiance will occur at the angle of zero degrees.It can be perceived from Figure 3, in which the consanguinity between angle and light intensity on blackbody in a radian mensurate is shown, the blue circles represent the angle from the center of the unit circle that correspond to the respective normalized illuminance value. From Table 2 it can be noted that as the angle of incidence is increased the illuminance decreases this corroborates Lamberts Cosine Law even further.Stefan-Boltzmann LawThis law situates that the total irradiance of a blackbody radiator is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute tempe rature. 1 This can be stated mathematically, as , where ? is the Boltzmann constant with a value of 5.67*10-8 W/m2*K4 although this law applies solely to blackbodies. From Figure 4 it can observed that a linear relationship develops between the temperature and the irradiance, with a positive slope of 2078.1 when the temperature climbs the measuring amplifier detects a higher amount of irradiance.The theoretical irradiance determine were calculated, since the only protean parameters in the equation for the irradiance are the temperatures that are detected. From Table 5 it can be discerned that the theoretical values had a share error of approximately 76% when compared to the experimental values. This is a very high percent error and can be explained by that fact that not all of the radiation emitted by the source reaches the measuring plates and the majority of the radiation is lost to the environment.ErrorsThe main source error in the lab experiment was confronted during the sec ond part of the lab during which the Cosine Law was being detected. This room needs to be completely dark and only the radiance from the source must reach the measuring plates so as to provide the most accurate results. This was not achieved as the room was not completely dark and ambient radiation was allowed to be incident upon the measuring plates causing an error.Experimental errors were caused due to the measuring ruler for the distances of separation and the error in the readings for the irradiance.Another source of error may be that all sources of radiance during the lab experiment were assumed to be point sources this is untrue as radiance was incident upon the measuring plates from reflection off the surfaces present in the laboratory room.CONCLUSIONFrom the laboratory experiment conducted the Lamberts Distance Law was proved to be true as it was observed that an inversely proportional relationship developed between the distance and the irradiance detected by the measuring amplifier. Similarly, the Cosine Law was also proved to be correct, as an inversely proportional relationship was also detected between the angle of incidence and the illuminance measured. The last law to be confirmed was the Stefan-Boltzmann Law, which was observed when the total irradiance of the blackbody radiator was proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature.Overall a firm understanding of Lamberts Distance & Cosine Laws and Stefan-Boltzmann Law and radiation transfer were gained.